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9. Prevention, Control and Management of Invasive Species

9.1 Take concrete steps to stop the infiltration of invasive plants and animals, organisms, and genetically altered or other living organisms into the country that are likely to invade, displace and destroy endemic species as well as other wetlands biodiversity, and take necessary actions to control and manage the invaders that have
already found their way into the country.


10. Institutional Policy Regarding Wetlands Management

10.1 Formulate Acts, Regulations and Guidelines to ensure the jurisdiction and compatibility of the bodies responsible for wetlands conservation and management.

10.2 For the effective conservation and management of wetlands, manage wetland sites in the following way –

10.2.1 Community managed wetlands

10.2.2 Private wetlands

10.2.3 Leasehold wetlands

10.2.4 Jointly managed wetlands

10.2.5 Religious wetlands, and

10.2.6 State managed wetlands0


11. Policy Regarding Prohibition of Works with Adverse Impacts on Wetlands

11.1 Identify and address the problems that create obstruction and exhaust wetlands resources and cause the disappearance of wetlands.

11.2 Discourage or restrict the activities that exert negative impact on wetlands such as the drying up of water, closing the source of flowing water or diverting of water, soil erosion, decrease in the traditional practice of using wetlands resources, conversion of wetlands into agricultural land or growing cash crop, uncontrolled growth of industries around wetland sites, excavation, extraction of
underground water and over grazing.

11.3 Prohibit the dumping of chemical pollutants, domestic garbage, industrial waste, toxic substances, and the use of electric current and explosives in the wetland sites.

11.4 Government of Nepal should formulate Acts and Regulations to discourage activities in the specific areas around wetlands that may have adverse environmental impact.

11.5 Make provisions of facilities to encourage local people in the conservation of private wetlands.


12. Policy Regarding Disappeared or Disappearing Wetlands

12.1 Find out wetlands that have ceased to exist and implement necessary activities for the restoration of such wetlands.

12.2 Determine and implement special programmes for the restoration of disappeared wetlands by promoting the involvement of local communities and local bodies.

12.3 Identify disappearing wetlands and carry out necessary works to preserve, improve and conserve them.

13. Immediate Works Pertaining to Wetlands Conservation and Management

13.1 Formulate special Acts, Regulations and Guidelines for the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands.

13.2 Identify wetlands that are eligible to be listed as Ramsar Sites, and take necessary initiatives for their inclusion in the Ramsar List.

13.3 Prepare an inventory of Nepal’s wetlands and gradually implement the management action plans after preparing them on the basis of priority of the wetlands.

13.4 Carry out necessary works to generate required financial support from local communities as well as from other internal and external sources.

13.5Take legal initiatives to protect local skill, knowledge and technology regarding wetlands conservation as intellectual property.

14. Future Works Regarding Wetlands Conservation and Management

14.1 Make national and international publicity of wetlands that have not been designated as Ramsar Sites but are very important from the point of view of their conservation and management, and gradually list them in the Ramsar Site.

14.2 Identify outstanding and highly threatened wetlands and prioritize them for conservation.

14.3 Develop wetland sites by preparing models of wetlands conservation and management.

14.4 Make local people the focal point for the management of wetlands resources, while confirming the management practice compatible with rural lifestyle.

14.5 Since that geographically the watersheds of surrounding areas determine the existence of wetlands, take necessary initiatives to maintain such watersheds and minimize the degradation of sources of water.

14.6 Regulate the extraction of underground water and prevent water pollution.

14.7 Develop a coordinating organization for the appropriate management of wetlands.

14.8 Take necessary steps to prevent the destruction of the wetlands biodiversity.

14.9 Emphasize on the conservation of ponds, reservoirs and other wetlands located in the mountainous areas.

14.10 Carry out works for the effective conservation and management of wetlands situated in the Trans-border areas by maintaining coordination with the concerned countries.

14.11 Incorporate the subject matter relating to wetlands conservation, sustainable development and the distribution of the benefits from wetlands in the text books of government and private schools and

14.12 Take awareness programmes regarding wetlands to local people and other strata of society.

14.13 Develop and disseminate necessary audio-visual and other promotional material to publicize and make the knowledge about wetlands effective

14.14 Develop an information centre that can provide information on all the wetlands of the country.

14.15 Initiate the setting up of small information centers in rural areasand gradually provide pictures, posters, textbooks, curriculums and other audio-visual material to the centers.

14.16 Conduct seminars, training and discussion programme on wetlandsin different parts of the country and provide knowledge, skill and training to decision makers of local bodies, local NGOs, private  organizations and the general public for the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands resources.

14.17 Develop programmes to enable local communities to generate required resources by themselves for the conservation and management of wetlands.

14.18 Promote the project activities conducted by local women that complement the efforts of NGOs working for wetlands conservation and recognize their role in the conservation of wetlands resources.

14.19 Prioritize and implement wetlands conservation programmes that provide tangible benefit to local people and improve their living conditions.

14.20 Develop and conduct income generating activities to encourage local people in the conservation and management of wetlands.

14.21 Develop and improve local people’s knowledge and skill regarding the conservation, management and sustainable use of biological resources of wetlands in a scientific way and apply the knowledge
by developing necessary programs about new skill and knowledge.

14.22 Monitor the impact and result of wetlands conservation and management along with periodic evaluation of progress statements.

14.23 Encourage various governmental and nongovernmental national and international organizations to conduct research works on wetland sites.

14.24 Promote qualitative and quantitative development of information system on national-level wetland sites.

14.25 Make a provision of “Wetlands Conservation Fund” for the required financial resources needed for wetlands conservation and sustainable development.

1. Background

The world community has been involved in the study and research of nuclear science as the entire world is familiar with the fact that the level of nuclear science is an indicator of inherent power and symbol of prosperity of a nation. Moreover, the fact is obvious that some international organizations such as International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) are working to accelerate and extend the contribution of atomic energy for improving human health and raising the living standard of the people significantly through the peaceful use of nuclear technology. In
the context of making maximum use of nuclear science in basic research in sector of food and agriculture, health, energy, industry, geo-science, geochemistry, geo-physics and pollution measurement, it is useful for
Nepal, too, to achieve better results on such sectors by utilizing nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Importance of nuclear technology has increased since it is environmentally friendly and may be useful in different disciplines of medicines. As well as it would be a better alternative to minimize the short supply of mineral fuels and to reduce severe environmental impact caused by large scale hydroelectric power projects. Nepal being surrounded by several nuclear power plants in its neighbour and in the context of their number being continuously increased, Nepal can not remain untouched from any kinds of nuclear accidents that may occur in its neighborhood and therefore, it is urgent to make necessary measurements on the present status of radiation level and there should be
regular monitoring and evaluation and proper safety measures in this regard should be taken. Moreover, there is an urgent need to well inform

2. Vision

Realizing the importance of peaceful use of nuclear energy and the outcomes achieved so far from its study and research, it shall be used for the economic and social prosperity.

4. Objectives

4.1 To enhance overall national welfare through peaceful use of nuclear science undertaking its research and development for the economic and social prosperity of the country.

4.2 To regulate, control and monitor the use of nuclear energy as per IAEA guidelines.

4.3  To enhance national capacity by developing, expanding and promoting human resources and physical infrastructures related with nuclear science.

4.4 To take sufficient safety measures for the development and use of  nuclear energy and to enhance public awareness about benefits and consequences of it.


5. Policy

5.1 To adopt policy and programmemes for peaceful use of nuclear energy as per its nature and pervasiveness and maintain coordination and balance between mutual effects of its programmeme and policy in economic, social, educational, cultural, industrial, foreign and agricultural policy.

5.2 To develop, promote and encourage research and development activities on nuclear energy, taking into consideration its pursuable fundamental, applied and educational aspects in an appropriate way through suitable, available and all possible measures.

5.3 To pay due attention to the goal oriented nuclear energy research activities that can play vital role for social and economic development.

5.4 To give due emphasis in the programmes such as proper development of food, agriculture, medicine, industry and water resources, study in geo-science, geo-chemistry, geo-physics disciplines, measurements of environment pollution level and radiation level and proper monitoring and identification of mineral ores for bringing them in use.

5.5 In order to extend academic study, research and knowledge in the field of nuclear energy, to make aim achieving efforts effective by involving the academic institutions including universities and other institutions working in this field.

5.6 To develop proper legal and institutional mechanism for the development and peaceful use of nuclear energy. While doing this, pay due attention on matters of safety aspects of export, import, purchase, sale, storage, transport, utilization and radiation of uranium and other radioactive materials.

5.7 To enhance bilateral and multilateral mutual relation and cooperation in the management of residual material of radioactive elements after their utilization in atomic energy development for peaceful purpose in regional and international field.

5.8 To set national standard having fixed quantitative measurement of radiation level in food materials.

5.9 To follow internationally accepted safety measures in the development and use of nuclear energy. To improve the condition of natural habitats maintaining environmental balance by keeping harmony with nature

5.10 To develop high level human resources in the field of nuclear science and give due emphasis in the development of capable manpower for the fulfillment of immediate need.

5.11 To utilize human resources available in governmental and nongovernmental sectors, universities and research laboratories of the country in an integrated and multidimensional basis and to conclude necessary agreements to collaborate with concerned international organizations and institutions.

5.12 To develop capability that can select, accept, adjust, use, maintain and mobilize technology relating to nuclear energy.

5.13 To use all possible measures for raising awareness among the general public concerning Nuclear Energy.

5.14 To establish national level information system for collection, storage and dissemination of information in the field of nuclear science.

6. Sectoral Work Policy

6.1 Research and Development

6.1.1 Farmers shall be encouraged towards professional farming techniques to produce seeds of higher breeds by creating genetic diversity in food crops with the help of ionizing radiation.

6.1.2 Nuclear technology shall be properly utilized in pest control and production of chemical fertilizer.

6.1.3 For fostering research and development programme in the field of nuclear science, proper research and development, management, substantial investment and suitable institutional structure shall be put in order.

6.1.4 Laboratories, research institutions and research units shall be gradually established for making research and
development more effective in the prioritized sectors.

6.1.5 Emphasis shall be given for the treatment and development aspects of nuclear medicines using radioisotopes.

6.1.6 Emphasis shall be given in the research of irradiation of food materials.

6.1.7 Infrastructures shall be developed gradually for the establishment of research reactor.

6.1.8 Research works shall be conducted in mutual collaboration of academic and industrial sectors to enhance production of industrial sector with the use of nuclear technology.

6.1.9 Research works on basic and technical knowledge of computer interfacing mechanism applied to nuclear
instrumentation shall be carried out.

6.1.10 Emphasis shall be given in conducting nuclear science related research on curative aspects of animal and fish

6.2 Human Resources Development

6.2.1 Mutual coordination shall be made effective by maintaining balance with nuclear policy and other policies.

6.2.2 Nuclear study and research shall be made an integral part of higher studies in science and technology. Suitable
curriculum shall be developed to fulfill the need of nuclear science study.

6.2.3 Due consideration shall be given in the preparation of curriculum of nuclear studies to generate human resources of special qualification and efficiency on nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and radiation security.

6.2.4 An arrangement for special training and education shall be made for the production of highly qualified and capable workers, managers, scientists and technicians level professional qualification, requires for the capability and overall skill.

6.2.5 Research work shall be encouraged by tying up the prioritized areas at different levels of study and teaching
with the subjects of comparative benefit of the country.


6.4 Data and Information System

6.4.1 Periodic survey on the possibilities of further development of nuclear energy shall be carried out and information thereof shall be updated.

6.4.2 Database shall be established for effective operation of collection of data and scientific information relating to
nuclear energy and their dissemination.

6.5 Radiation Study and Monitoring

6.5.1 Radiation map shall be prepared by actually measuring and studying background radiation level of different parts of the country.

6.5.2 Radiation measuring units shall be established gradually at different places of the country for the monitoring and collecting data of radiation level.

6.5.3 On the basis of radiation map, excavation of mineral ore deposits following survey and exploration work shall be carried out for the development of nuclear science.


6.7 Human Safety and Health

6.7.1 Basic safety measures of international standards shall be adopted in carrying out works related to nuclear energy mobilization and transportation of radioactive materials, use of ionizing radiation in any form and management of radioactive materials after their use. While doing this, the system that has least impact in the environment and human health shall be adopted.

6.7.2 International standard and convention of radio safety measures shall be adopted while carrying out improvement in health status of common people. Moreover, appropriate methodology for curing disease, utilizing nuclear medicine, radio-immunology, radio therapy, radio pharmaceutical and technology for preparing nuclear medicines shall be developed.

6.7.3 Necessary standards for the safe utilization of radioactive materials shall be developed and implemented.

6.8 Industrial Use

6.8.1 Nuclear energy contained in the form of radioactive materials and radiation shall be used for enhancing the
capacity and quality of different industrial materials.

6.8.2 Radioactive materials shall be used for various purposes in  the form of radioactive tracer element.


6.9 Use of Radio Isotopes

6.9.1 Electronic instrumentation facilities for utilizing radioisotopes in nuclear medicine shall be developed in the medical sector.

6.9.2 Research level reactor shall be established for the production of radio isotopes to be used in medical sector.

6.9.3 Radio isotopes shall be used in increasing animal population and in improving their health.

6.10 Radiation in Food Materials

6.10.1 Coordination amongst concerned sectors shall be established for data collection, study and research for setting national standard of nuclear radiation in food materials

6.10.2 Samples of imported food materials shall be tested and controlled on a regular basis.

6.10.3 Irradiation technology shall be used for the storage of food materials to make them free of germs and also for
lengthening storage period.

6.10 Radiation in Food Materials

6.10.1 Coordination amongst concerned sectors shall be established for data collection, study and research for
setting national standard of nuclear radiation in food materials

6.10.2 Samples of imported food materials shall be tested and controlled on a regular basis.

6.10.3 Irradiation technology shall be used for the storage of food materials to make them free of germs and also for
lengthening storage period.

7. Institutional Structure

In the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, there shall be “Nuclear Steering Committee” for providing necessary directives and guidance regarding the implementation of National Nuclear Policy for long term basis. The committee may form technical committees including experts as required. Composition of Nuclear Steering
Committee shall be as follows:

Hon. Minister/State Minister, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology – Chairperson

Hon. Member, National Planning Commission (Concerned sector) – Member

Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology – Member

Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs – Member

Secretary, Ministry of Defense – Member

Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Member
Secretary, Ministry of Industry, Commerce and
Supplies – Member
Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives – Member
Secretary, Nepal Academy of Science and
Technology – Member
– Member
– Member
Chief, Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital, Bhaktapur
Chief, B.P. Koirala Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur
Head of central department of physics,
University, Physics Central– Member
Two experts nominated by the Government of
Nepal from the Atomic Sector – Member
Scientific Advisor, Ministry of Environment,
Science and Technology – Member
Joint Secretary, Ministry of Environment,
Science and Technology – Member-Secretary

Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology shall have the role of
promoter, regulator and facilitator in implementation of this policy.


This Special Education Policy has been formulated with the objective of creating environment to raise public awareness for socialization of various types of disabled persons remained in Nepal viz. blind or person having poor
eye sight, deaf and hearing-impaired, mentally retarded person, physically disabled, person difficult to teach (inability), person having problem in voice, language and communication skill and person of multi-disabilities and the objectives or of making proper arrangement of education in conformity with
disability to make them independent and self-reliant. Even though Government of Nepal has introduced the Special Education Programme since 2021 (1964), effort of development and extension of special education was made in planned manner by the Plan of national education system enforced in 2028 (1971). The outcome of the said Plan was constitution of the Special Education Council 2030 (1973). It is found that the foreign donor agencies have made more support for the special education after the International Disabled Year, 1981 A.D. However, the support to be provided by the foreign donor agencies is for a certain period. By taking into consideration the fact that there is no certainty as to how and from whom the said programme will be conducted after the said donor assisting period, as one aspect of education is left if Government of Nepal leaves the special education from the course of conducting programme as the Basic Education and Education for the All, Government of Nepal deemed it incomplete and, therefore, realized the need to conduct itself the special education. As a result, the Ministry of Education and Cultures constituted a Committee to submit timely suggestion for development and extension of the special education in 2046 (1989). The Ministry of Education and Cultures decided to gradually conduct itself the special education according to the suggestions given by the said committee and arrangement of
budget to be borne by Government of Nepal has been made for salary and allowance of teachers and employees of the special education school since 2048/049 (1991/1992). With the objective of making Special Education Council active, the said Council was re-constituted under the Chairpersonship of the Minister for Education Cultures.

Present Situation:

There is the lack of reliable data on the matters of disability. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, there are 5.2 disabled among in each thousand persons. As per the survey of International Disabled Year, there are
30 disabled in each 1000 persons but according to the Word Health Organization, there are 100 disabled among each 1000 persons. Educational facilities available to the disabled children is not adequate as per necessity. However, number of disabled students receiving opportunity to education is being increased each year. In addition to this, place and area providing special education is gradually being extended. Government of Nepal has re-managed the special education programme since last three years. The special education programme is being conducted with the assistance of the Basic and Primary Education Project and Danida. This Programme is conducted as an integral part of the Basic and Primary Education Project. Objective of this Programme is to provide integrated
education in the regular school to the disabled children in the districts where the Basic and Primary Education Project are enforced Special Education Unit of the Basic and Primary Education Project is working therefore.
Some important works, which are being performed by the Special Education Unit for conducting special education programme to the disabled children, are as follows:

1. Operation of public awareness programme through various mediums to raise public awareness about the programme to the peoples of various sectors of the community.

2. Survey programme for collection of exact data of disability.

3. Arrangement of integrated education and arrangement of conducting source class.

4. Various types of teachers training.

5. Relation and co-ordination with Non-governmental Organizations.

6. Production and development of various types of educational materials.At present, the Special Education Council has defined the following words relating to special education and various types of disability and has been conducting programme accordingly.

Special Education:

Special education means the teaching, learning and training arrangement made through special method to meet the need of education of various types of disabled children as the other normal children in conformity with their
disability. Arrangement has been made of specially the following two types of schools for providing special education:

Integrated School:

Integrated school means the arrangement of teaching through teachers received training relating to special education by making arrangement of source class and necessary materials keeping almost light and medium disabled and blinds in the regular school.

The Disabled are as follows:

Physically Disabled:

The physical disabled means such physical defect which does not cause difficulty in daily business, by which one can perform the same with the help of any means or by which one becomes unable to perform by him/herself the daily business by a defect taken place due to any accident, sickness or weakness or mental effect at the time of delivery or after birth.

Mentally retarded

Mentally retarded means deficiency in capacity of carrying out activities suitable to communal (group) environment in comparison with his/her age and lower mental and intellectual capacity development of any persons than the
average people taken place at the time of his/her age below 18 years.

Deaf and hearing-impaired:

Deaf means such person who cannot hear with ear, who speaks unclear or cannot speak or who has to use symbolic language. Or, Deaf means such person who cannot speak and hear only, but who is physically fit as other ordinary person, who is capable to carry out all the works equivalent to others and who is mentally intelligent and clever.
The hearing-impaired means such persons who cannot hear well, but who can speak clearly and properly, who wears hearing aid in the ear, who can speak and communicate, and who can communicate with the symbolic
language. However, person who is completely unable to hear with ear may not be called as the hearing-impaired.

Blind or Poor Eyesight:

Blind means such person who is completely unable to see with both eyes and to whom Braille has to be used while teaching him/her. Or Blind means such person who is only unable to see with eyes but who is physically fit as other ordinary person, who is capable to carry out all the works and who is mentally intellectual and clever.
Person of poor eye sight means such person who can see low with one or both eyes, who can see little more by using glass and who uses or does not use Braille.

Teaching Difficulty (Inability):

Teaching difficulty (inability) means the situation where the out-put of teaching can not be achieved even all the facilities are equally available in one subject and sector even though there is no any other disability generally. It can
neither be said that there is mentally retarded nor be said that there is teaching inability in all subjects.


Multi-disability means the situation of mixture of disability viz. physical disability, deaf, blind and slow mental condition. Or, Multi-disability means the situation of mixture of any kind of two or more than two disabilities. For instance-deaf and physical disability, physical disability and blind, blind and slow mental condition, slow mental condition and deaf, etc.

Special Education Policy:

The following Special Education Policy is formulated to place disabled in the national mainstream by making arrangement of education in conformity the National Education Policy: –

1. To universally define disability and fix type and amount degree/quantum of disability.

2. To make necessary arrangement of survey programme and collection of data for comprehensive details of number, age, sex, type and degree/quantum, etc of disabled children.

3. To develop the primary education to be provided to the various types of disabled children as an integral part of the ‘Education for All’.

4. To make arrangement of constructing school building with special physical facilities taking into consideration the transportation of the disabled.

5. To provide the primary to secondary level education to the disabled children free of cost. For this purpose, to make necessary arrangement that all level private sector schools shall provide education to the
disabled free of cost.

6. To provide children the integrated special education to the disabled in
regular school free of cost and to make arrangement of special school as
per necessity.

7. To grant permission or approval only to those school which fulfilled the specified minimum physical and technical prerequisites and conditions to conduct special education programme.

8. To make arrangement of teaching special education in Universities.

9. To make arrangement of frequent, partial and full grant on the basis of comprehensiveness, standard and financial capacity of conducting service.

10. To provide uniformity by taking into consideration the inspection aspect of special education in the present inspection and supervision system for making improvement of management aspect of school providing special
11. To determine and produce, and caused to be determined and produced, the curriculum, text book, other educational materials and equipment for special education to be provided to the disabled children and to make
necessary arrangements of providing to same to them free of cost as per necessity.

12. To incorporate the general information pertaining to special education and health education pertaining to disability in regular curriculum to study by regular students and in teachers training curriculum as several
symptoms of disability can be recovered by the medical treatment at the preliminary stage.

13. To make arrangement of library and laboratory for special education as per necessity and to gradually make arrangement of materials as may be used by the disabled also in the libraries conducted at present.

14. To make arrangement of other encouragements including scholarship to provide opportunity of higher education to intelligent disabled students.

15. To provide boarding facility to the disabled students as per necessity.

16. To make arrangement of providing special concession as possible while importing materials viz. wheel chair, crutch, white cane, hearing aid, Braille, state-styles, special chair and artificial organs, etc, to be used by
the disabled child students daily.

17. To make arrangement of providing to the teachers working in the special education sector salary and allowance at least as received by teachers of other public school and to make this occupation attractive.

18. To make arrangement and planned development of necessary human resource including teachers for programme to provide special education.

19. To maintain coordination with the body-conducting teachers training and to make arrangement of training necessary for special education programme.

20. To mobilize qualified disabled person also as special education teacher in conformity with the disability if he/she gained expertise on special means to be used for special education viz. Braille, symbolic language, etc.

21. To make arrangement of physical exercise and cultural and sports programme for personality and physical development of disabled children. In addition to this, to provide opportunity to participate in the national and international competitive programme and to prepare necessary human resource therefor.

22. To make arrangement of special types of education or work based education as per the suggestion and opinion of the experts of the concerned sector with regard to the double or multi disabled persons.

23. To make arrangement of examination and evaluation of examinees on the basis of the types of disability.

24. To make special arrangement of prize, etc. to encourage institution and association and persons who made commendable performance by providing special education to the disabled children.

25. Non-governmental Organizations shall conduct special education programme by obtaining permission from the body as specified by the Special Education Council.

26. To encourage national and international Non-governmental Organizations interested to conduct programme for establishment of training centre by specifying necessary prerequisites and conditions with the objective of preparing necessary human resource to conduct special education programme as per the type and amount of disability.

27. To encourage Non-governmental organizations to involve in the national special education programme and to give necessary assistance to develop by maintaining relationship and co-ordination in the special education sector between national and international Non-governmental Organizations and governmental bodies, and extend physical and technical human resource of the Non-governmental Organizations working for this programme.

28. To encourage charitable and other social organization to conduct special education programme.

29. To make special education skill-oriented and to make arrangement of technical education and vocational training on the ground of capacity and qualification of disabled to rehabilitate them in community.

30. To conduct skill-oriented informal education programme for adult disabled.

31. To organize various level gathering and symposium to bring radical change in wrong concept towards disabled prevalent in many of the general people by virtue of cultural, religious, racial, superstitious, conservative tradition, lack of awareness and financial reason and to conduct programme of public awareness pertaining to disability among the general public through the common media.

32. To conduct such consultative programme that gives psychological motivation to father, mother, guardian, teachers of the disabled children and to the person of close contact to make an environment of providing educational opportunities to them and to socialize them in community.

33. The Special Education Council shall develop and extend network system to mobilize various sources and materials available in the national and international level. Separate short term and long-term action plans and programmes shall be formulated in connection with implementing aforesaid policy and initiated to
implement as soon as possible.


1. Rationale:

Ayurveda is a national method of therapy/treatment of Nepal. Like the heritage of Himalayas and water resources, the original practices, manuscripts, records of Ayurvedic treatment and medicinal use of abundant herbs has taken an important role in Nepal. With a view to effectively implementing the commitment of the Government towards Ayurvedic treatment, this Ayurveda Health Policy has been made.

2. Objective:

For the accomplishment of the objectives identified by the National Health Policy, 2048 (1991), the specialty of Ayurvedic treatment which has been preserving health and curing diseases from ancient times is timely. Its principal objective is to improve health condition of mass people and make them self-reliant on health service by officially and
utmostly utilizing local medical herbs and medical entities which are easily available and can be used persistently.

3. Form of Ayurvedic Treatment Service:

The form of science of Ayurvedic treatment is based on Doshadushya Principle, special treatment technique and the utilization of the available local herbs, minerals and Jantab entities. Ayurvedic treatment shall be developed as a special treatment method in the country in a phase-wise manner.

3.1 The present organization of the Department of Ayurveda shall be reformed as required and various sections shall be operated and consolidated. Coordinative procedures shall be followed with other departments and units under the Ministry of Health. The Department shall coordinate the activities of governmental and non-governmental, national and international organizations relating to Ayurvedic treatment service, educational research and formation of medicines. Units shall be established under the Department also to develop and expand the service of natural
therapy, homoeopathy as well as other alternative systems of therapy.

3.2 The Ayurvedic Hospital Nardevi, existing at the central level, shall be upgraded to 100 beds at present, and operated as a hospital providing specific Ayurvedic service by establishing different departments of Ayurveda. This Hospital shall be operated under a Development Board.

3.3 In harmony with the policy to grant autonomy to and professionalize the existing Singhadurbar Vaidhyakhanam which has been approved by the Government in principle, the production and supply of Ayurvedic medicines shall be wellmanaged and made effective, and it shall also help strengthen national economy by producing qualitative medicines of international standards, and promoting exports.

3.4 The existing Ayurvedic Hospital, Dang, with 15 beds, shall be converted into a Mid-Western Regional Ayurvedic Hospital, operated as a hospital providing special service, with necessary human resource and equipment and a medicine production section and building which are under construction shall be completed.

3.5 In the rest four Development Regions, regional hospitals with 15 beds and laboratory for medicine production in each hospital shall be established and operated.

3.6 The system of supervision, monitoring, evaluation and referral process of the technical and administrative functions of Ayurvedic hospital shall be made effective, for the promotion of   production, collection and protection of the herbs locally available and for utmost utilization thereof in Ayurvedic treatment, presently existing District Ayurvedic Health centres shall be consolidated and even in the rest districts, a District Ayurvedic health centre, with required human resource and equipment, shall be established in the headquarters of each district.

3.7 The Ayurvedic Dispensaries being currently operated shall be equipped and made capable of producing, protecting, promoting of the herbs available in local level, in addition to the medicines to be sent by the Government of Nepal, and utmostly using them in technology and treatment; arrangements shall be made to keep on establishing Ayurvedic Dispensaries in the centre of at least five village development committees, on the basis of density of population, local demand and people’s participation.

3.8 Buildings of Ayurvedic health centres and dispensaries shall be built, and development of model herbs farm shall be developed in the premises thereof.

4. Mobilization of inter institutional and public participation:

4.1 Health workers, wizards, women volunteers, birth-attendants, workers of social organization, who are providing medical service by way of herbs in a traditional manner in rural areas shall be provided with trainings of growth, promotion collection protection and use of herbs, and public participation shall be mobilized in the Ayurvedic treatment service. 4.2 For co-ordination with Ayurvedic Sector, inter-institutional coordination committees shall be set up and maintained at the governmental as well as non-governmental level, from national to rural level in the field of herbs, forest, conservation areas, environment, remote area development committee, agriculture,education sector etc.

5. Herbs farming, production and enterprise of medicines:

5.1 Qualitative business of herbs shall be encouraged by developing model herbs farms in Himalaya, Mountainous and Terai regions and providing the people with knowledge on the use of the herbs in domestic treatment and their preparation, protection and promotion.

5.2 Co-ordination shall be made with governmental and nongovernmental organizations related with herbals, so as to maintain standards in domestic trade and export to foreign countries by identifying genuine herbals.

5.3 Governmental and non-governmental Ayurvedic medicine manufacturing companies established or to be established in the country shall be encouraged to manufacture qualitative medicines on the basis of ‘Better Medicine Formation Code’ and imports shall be reduced and export promoted. For this purpose, coordination shall be made with the Department of Drug Administration as well as with related governmental bodies.

5.4 One Ayurbedic Medicine Examination Committee and laboratory shall be developed for maintaining the quality of Ayurvedic medicines to be imported from abroad or prepared in the country as well as for other technical works

5.5 Nepal Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia shall be collected and published in a timely manner.

6. Ayurvedic education and human resource development:

6.1 Taking into consideration of paramount role of qualified, efficient

and duty-bond human resources in the technical field such as treatment, a National Ayurvedic Institute, equipped with necessary equipment as well as research centre, shall be established under the Tribhuvan University, for enhancing and carrying on further development in effective production of Ayurvedic human resources carrying out functions being dedicated to the filed of Ayurveda and in standard of quality of its various dimensions (education, health and preparation of medicines).

6.2 Programme of producing bachelor-level human resources in Ayurved shall be conducted so that physical infrastructure shall be developed in harmony with the objective to provide master level and Phd. level Ayurvedic education in the future.

6.3 As high-level human resource is required for the protection and overall development of Ayurveda in the context of providing the people with the cheap, easily accessible and relatively without side-effect (Nirapad) treatment service by having utmost mobilization of the natural resources of the country, the process
of production of such high level human resource shall be continuously operated without confining such human resource to the number required for the Government of Nepal.

6.4 Middle-level and basic-level Ayurvedic human resources shall be produced, and educational programmers shall be launched for this purpose.

6.5 Native and foreign citizens who are desirous of pursuing
introductory knowledge of Ayurvedic medicines shall be

provided with an opportunity to study.


7. Management of Ayurvedic Human Resources:

7.1 Various organizational structures under the Ayurveda Group shall be made responsive and service-oriented, for the consolidation of management aspect of Ayurvedic human resources.

7.2 Ayurvedic doctors and Ayurvedic health workers shall be provided with the same allowances and special facilities as doctors or health workers of other systems are receiving or shall receive.

8. Ayurvedic Research:

8.1 There shall be established as Ayurvedic Research Institute furnished with the required equipment, for research of
international standard in matters related with the use of Ayurvedic medicines and entities and the Ayurvedic treatment.

8.2 The Ayurvedic manuscripts available in the country shall be preserved, data bank, reference library shall be established, and contemporary reference materials shall be published.

8.3 Magazines pertaining to the protection, farming, promotion, utility method, environmental education, of the herbs available in the country shall be published, and national records thereof, prepared.

8.4 There shall be launched a campaign to perpetuate the protection and relevancy of the knowledge of traditional health workers.

8.5 For the above activities, co-ordination shall be maintained with Ayurvedic Research Institute, National Ayurvedic Institute, Ayurvedic Hospitals, governmental and non-governmental Ayurvedic Medicine Companies and other related research institutes.