Skip to contentSkip to left sidebar Skip to footer

Policy

4.6 Improved Cook Stove Technology

4.6.1 The public awareness shall be increased on smokeless and fuel-wood efficient improved cook stove.

4.6.2 Emphasis shall be given on research, development and dissemination of household and institutional stoves appropriate for varying geographical and cultural needs.

4.6.3 Activities of technology transfer of improved cook stove in rural areas shall be undertaken.itutional stoves appropriate for varying geographical and cultural needs.

4.6.3 Activities of technology transfer of improved cook stove in rural areas shall be undertaken.

4.7 Improved Water Mill Technology

4.7.1 Arrangement shall be made to provide hulling and grinding services in rural areas by improving the traditional water mills.

4.7.2 Private sector shall be encouraged to manufacture equipments locally for the use in improved water mill.

4.7.2 Electricity production from the improved water mill shall be encouraged.

4.8 Rural Electrification

4.8.1 Arrangement shall be made to enable cooperatives and local bodies to take electricity from national grid on lease.

4.8.2 Arrangement shall be made for wheeling electricity in the national grid for electricity produced by communities, cooperatives and private electricity project.

4.8.3 Rural electrification with users’ participation shall be implemented in their own initiative by safeguarding their interests.

4.8.4 Regarding the maximum use of surplus electricity, arrangements shall be made to increase the consumption of the unused low priced electricity as per  dual tariff system, especially in sectors like agriculture, irrigation, drinking
water, small and cottage industry, ropeway, etc.

 

5 Subsidy Arrangement.

The subsidy rate and disbursement criteria as per the existing renewable (rural) energy subsidy arrangement shall be revised as required in the basis of geographical condition, population, and available resources. Subsidy delivery shall be as per the provisions of the existing subsidy delivery mechanism. The following strategy shall be adopted for this purpose:

5.1 Subsidy shall be arranged by classifying Village Development Committees based on poverty, remoteness, dalit and backward caste and tribes.

5.2 The existing subsidy shall be gradually reduced in accessible areas and areas where it is commercial viable.

5.3 Community management and holistic approach shall be encouraged as may be necessary for the sustainable rural energy development and management.

5.4 Micro hydro projects developed by the user-groups and cooperatives shall be encouraged.

5.5 Poor and backward families shall be identified and provided with additional support for use of rural energy system.

5.6 Necessary arrangement shall be made for encouragement in the feasible areas where there is no biogas.

5.7 The operation of biogas plants with toilet attachment shall be encouraged.

5.8 Development and promotion of briquette, bio-fuel, biomass gasification etc. shall be encouraged.

5.9 Subsidy to solar electricity shall be discouraged in the areas where there is financial and physical feasibility of micro and small hydro.
5.10 Use of solar energy and wind energy shall be encouraged where hydropower is not feasible.

5.11 Necessary arrangement shall be made for development of solar thermal technology in the rural areas.

5.12 Necessary financial support shall be made available for research and development of new technology.

6 Resources Arrangement:

6.1 Resource Mobilization

6.1.1 Arrangement shall be made for investment by District Development Committee in the community micro and mini hydro projects to be constructed in their district through concerned District Energy Fund.

6.1.2 Arrangement shall be made for investment by Village Development Committee in the community micro and mini hydro projects to be constructed in its area through concerned Village Energy Fund.

6.1.3 Development of industries for manufacturing and producing equipments and materials to be used in the rural energy sector shall be encouraged.

6.1.4 The formation of user and community organisations shall be done through community mobilization and arrangement of the representation of women, dalits, Janjatis, disadvantaged (utpidit) and backward groups.6.1.5

6.1.5 Necessary facilitation and assistance shall be provided for registration and renewal of user/community organisations through District Development Committee.

6.1.6 Arrangements shall be made to utilise the fund, collected by levying tax  for this purpose in the sales and distribution of petroleum products, in the rural energy development.

 

6.2 Human Resource Management

6.2.1 Human Resource capacity shall be developed at the central level in Alternative Energy Promotion Centre and at the local level for formulation, management, monitoring and evaluation of rural energy development programmes.

6.2.2 Arrangement shall be made for training and skill development to the rural energy users to operate, maintain and manage the rural energy systems.

7 Coordination Arrangement:

7.1.1 Central level coordination of the rural energy development activities shall becarried by the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre and at local level byconcerned local bodies.

7.1.2 The women’s development, irrigation, drinking water, community saving,health, forests, industries,environmental conservation, road, micro-finance, literacy campaign programmes, which are conducted at the local level shall be implemented by integrating with the rural energy development programmes.

7.1.3 Government, non-government and donor agencies shall be encouraged to collaborate in the capacity building of the District Development Committee for implementation of rural energy prgrammes prioritised in the periodic plan
of the District Development Committee and activities related to districts rural energy master-plan.

8. Monitoring and evaluation Arrangement:

8.1.1 Arrangements shall be made for monitoring and evaluation from Central  level by Alternative Energy Promotion Centre and at local level by concerned local bodies.

8.1.2 Monitoring and evaluation activity shall be strengthened in all level of rural energy development programmes by updating geographic and management information systems.

8.1.3 Rural energy programmes shall be monitored and evaluated based on output oriented indicators.

8.1.4 Energy auditing system shall be developed and implemented.

8.1.5 Arrangements shall be made for rewards and penalty based on monitoring and evaluation.

9. Institutional Arrangement :

9.1 At Central Level

At the central level, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre shall carry out activities related to formulation of rural energy policy and programmes, studies and researches, subsidy disbursements, technical assistance, selection of
companies and organizations installing rural energy systems, donor coordination, monitoring and evaluation etc.

 

9.1.1 Rural Energy Central Coordination Committee

Government of Nepal shall form a Rural Energy Central Coordination Committee under the chairpersonship of member of the National Planning Commission looking after energy sector. The Executive Director of the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre shall be the member secretary of this committee. The formation and operation of this committee shall be as prescribed by the law.

9.1.2 Central Rural Energy Fund

With the objectives for the development, expansion, promotion of rural energy technologies and assist in rural electrification, the existing Rural Energy Fund under Alternative Energy Promotion Centre shall be expanded into Central Rural Energy Fund (CREF). The CREF shall have the fund from the Government of Nepal and other sources. The formation and management working modality of the CREF shall be as prescribed by the Government of
Nepal.

9.2 At District level

Institutional arrangement for rural energy development shall be arranged as prescribed in Local Self Governance Act, 2055 BS. District Energy Fund and Village Energy Fund shalInstitutional arrangement for rural energy development shall be arranged as prescribed in Local Self Governance Act, 2055 BS. District Energy Fund and
Village Energy Fund shall be established to promote and expand rural energy at district and village level, respectively. Formation of this fund shall be as prescribed by the Government of Nepal.l be established to promote and expand rural energy at district and village level, respectively. Formation of this fund shall be as
prescribed by the Government of Nepal.

10 Other Arrangement:

10.1 Arrangement shall be made for community mobilization as may be required for implementation of energy development programme.

10.2 Rural energy systems shall be developed and expanded in the basis of cluster.

10.3 Access to energy shall be increased through different rural energy technologies and grid by preparing district level energy master plan based on district energy potential and requirement. Use of rural energy shall be encouraged in diversifying productive end

10.4 uses for industry, food processing, household equipment, agricultural equipment, irrigation, and drinking water in addition to cooking and lighting uses.

10.5 Except for the edible oil, research and development and dissemination shall be emphasized on oils that can be used as energy from vegetations, fruits and seeds and that are not used traditionally

10.6 As the rural energy is directly linked to activities traditionally carried out by the women, programmes of rural energy technology shall be implemented considering it as an integral part of the women’s enabling activities.

10.7 Fund received from selling greenhouse gas emission reduction sales shall be used for the promotion and development of the rural energy.

Present health status

The present low level of health status is attributable to lack of political commitment, inappropriate strategies and weakness in implementation of preventive, promotive and curative health programmes up to the grass roots
level during the past 30 years. Because of those weaknesses even now the crude death rate is 16 per thousand, crude birth rate is 41 per thousand, child mortality rate is 107 per thousand, maternal mortality rate is 8.5 per
thousand and mortality rate of children below 5 years is 197 per thousand. These facts and figures have identified Nepal as an underdeveloped and backward nation. Regarding health services delivery, there is one hospital for One Hundred Sixty Eight Thousand persons and one doctor for Ninety Two Thousand persons in the rural areas. Likewise, only one hospital bed is available for nearly Four Thousand persons. There is only one health post for Twenty Four Thousand rural persons, which indicates the almost total inadequacy of public health services at the rural level.

Main deficiencies in previous health services

(1) The policy, objectives and strategies outlined for health services were not village oriented and there existed deficiencies in the capability of using the available resources since the rural structures were not formulated as per the requirements of the rural population.

(2) Physical structures of programmes were not systematic, planned and not in consonance with the schedule of operations.

(3) The supervision, monitoring and evaluation of the programmes were not conducted in a regular manner.

(4) Means and resources were fully centralized.

(5) The posts sanctioned for district level health organizations were not filled.

Objectives of the Health Policy

The primary objectives of the Health Policy are to upgrade the health standards of the majority of the rural population by extending Basic Primary Health Services up to the village level and to provide the opportunity to the rural people to enable them to obtain the benefits of modern medical facilities by making the facilities accessible to them.

Targets of the Health Policy

By the year 2000, the following targets shall be attained:

1. The infant mortality rate shall be reduced to 50 per thousand from the present 107 per thousand.

2. The mortality rate of children below 5 years shall be reduced to 70 per thousand from the present 197 per thousand.

3. The total fertility rate shall be reduced to 4 from the present 5.8.

4. The maternal mortality rate shall be reduced to 4 per thousand from the present 8.5 per thousand.

5. The average life expectancy shall be raised to 65 years from the present 53 years.

 

Health Policies

1. Preventive Health Services The services that are provided for the prevention of diseases fall under the Preventive Health Services. Under these, priority shall be given to those programmes, which directly help to reduce infant and
child mortality rates. These services shall be provided in an integrated way, through sub-health care centres at the rural level. The following main programmes shall be operated under this service:

(a)Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Programme

(b)Safe Motherhood Programme

(c) Expanded Immunization Programme

(d)Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infection Control Program

(e)Tuberculosis Control Programme

(f)Leprosy Control Programme

(g) Malaria and ‘Kalajaar’ Control

(h) Control of Epidemic of Communicable Diseases

(i) Initiation of Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases

(j) Initiation of Primary Health Services in Urban Slums

(k)Prevention of AIDS

 

 

2. Promotive Health Services

The following programmes which enable persons and communities to live healthy lives are included under the promotive services:

(a) Health Education and Information: One of the main reasons for the low health standards of the people is the lack of public awareness of health matters. Therefore, health education shall be provided in an effective manner from centre to rural levels. For this, political workers, teachers, students, social

(b) Nutrition Programme:

There shall be launched the programmes of promotion of breast-feeding, growth monitoring, prevention of iodine deficiency disorders, iron and vitamin ‘A’ deficiency, and health education to enable mothers to meet the daily requirements of children through locally available resources.

(c) Environmental Health:

Programmes such as to inform the people about personal hygiene, to collect and manage solid wastes, to inspect and examine hotel foods, drinking water and other edible products, to manage construction of general latrines and urinals shall be operated in a coordinated manner.

3. Curative Health Services:

The following curative health services shall be made available at Central, District and Village levels:

(a) Preventive, promotive and curative health services shall be made available in an integrated way in the rural areas through sub-health posts and primary health care centres.

(b) There shall be at least one hospital in each district of the country where out-door services, in-door services, family planning and maternity and child health services, immunization services and emergency services shall be provided.

(c) One Zonal Hospital shall be established gradually in each of the zones of the country. Specialized services relating to pediatrics, gynecology, general surgery, general medicine, eye,  ear, nose and throat care, and dental services shall be available at that Hospital.

(d) One Regional Hospital shall be established gradually in each of Five Development Regions of Nepal. In these hospitals, specialized services such as dermatology, orthopedics and psychiatry shall be added in addition to those available in zonal hospitals.

(e) Hospitals that are equipped with sophisticated facilities and provide specialty and super-specialty services shall be operated at the central level.

(f) Specialist services shall be extended to remote mountain regions, as and when required, through mobile teams.

(g) A referral system shall be developed through which the rural population shall be provided with the opportunities to obtain services from modern well equipped hospitals, as and when required.

(h) Diagnostic Services such as laboratory, X-Ray and other supportive services shall be strengthened in the hospitals at various levels.

4. Basic Primary Health Services

(a) Sub-Health Posts shall be established in a phase wise manner in all Village Development Committees of Nepal. Each SubHealth Post shall have one village health worker, one maternal and child health worker and one auxiliary health worker. These Sub-Health Posts shall provide general curative, promotive and preventive health services. Immunization, family planning, maternity and child health, health education, nutrition, environmental education, sanitation, and treatment of malaria, leprosy and tuberculosis shall also be extended by these SubHealth Posts, up to the ward level.

(b) One Health Post in 205 election constituencies of Nepal shall be upgraded in a gradual manner and converted into a Primary Health Care Centre. In addition to the services as provided by Sub-Health Posts, arrangements shall be made for two emergency beds and one maternity bed in these Centres. The remaining health posts shall be operated as usual.

(c) The Health Posts operating at present shall provide all health services in the village Development Committee where they are located as is done by Sub-Health Posts and shall also supervise and monitor the activities of Sub-Health Posts.

6. Improvements in Organization and Management Aspect

(a) Improvement shall be made in the organization and management of health facilities/institutions at the central,
regional and district levels. Hospitals and public health offices at district levels shall be operated in an integrated way under one organization.

(b) The technical and administrative supervision and follow-up system for health organizations at various levels shall be made effective.

(c) Hospitals and health units at different levels shall be classified. A detailed description of the services available as the health facilities at different levels, cost of the services and list of free services shall be prepared and made public.

(d) The collection, compilation, recording and reporting systems for health information at each level shall be made effective.

(e) Improvements shall be made in transportation and support systems for drugs and equipment at various health institutions.

7. Development and Management of Health Related Human Resources:

(a) Capable human resources required for various health institutions shall be developed in a planned manner.

(b) Necessary cooperation shall be extended for institutional development of the Institute of Medicine, the main
organization of the country producing health related human resources, in order to raise its production capacity.

(c) Necessary arrangements for training in foreign countries shall be made to produce those categories of human resources that cannot be produced within the country.

(d) The training centres under the Ministry of Health shall be strengthened institutionally and their production capacity shall be raised, as required.

(e)Necessary reforms shall be made in transfer, promotion and career development procedures for the health related personnel at various levels.

(f)Arrangements shall be made to provide special benefits for doctors and other health related personnel to encourage them to work in remote rural areas

 

8. Private, Non-Governmental and Inter -Sectoral Coordination

(a) If anyone in the private sector wants to extend health services through the establishment of hospitals, health units, nursing homes, without any financial liability to the Government of Nepal, such institutions may be operated after having obtained permission, subject to minimum standards as prescribed by the Government of Nepal.

(b) Non-Government Organizations and Associations shall be involved in health services under the prescribed policies of the Government of Nepal.

(c) Necessary coordination shall be maintained at each level with the health related sectors including agriculture, education, drinking water and local development.

9. Ayurved and Other Traditional Health Systems

(a) The Ayurvedic system shall be developed in a gradual manner. Organizational structures for different levels shall be prepared separately. In this sector medicine shall be developed and expanded on the basis of evaluation of quality of services through research.

(b) Encouragement shall be provided, as far as possible, to other traditional health services such as Unani, Homeopathic and Naturopathy.

10. Drug Supply

(a) In order to bring about improvements in the supply of drugs in government health organizations as well as those operated under the private sector, the domestic production of essential drugs shall be increased. The quality of the drugs shall be upgraded by revising the National Drug Policy.

11. Provision of Resource Mobilization in Health Services

(a) National and international resources shall be mobilized for health services. National and foreign donor agencies shall be requested to provide necessary cooperation for providing resources to implement the programmes under the Health Policy of the Government of Nepal.

(b) Various alternative measures for resource mobilization in health services shall be the subject of experiment such as Health Insurance, User’s Charges and Revolving Drug Scheme.

13. Regionalization and Decentralization

(a) Regionalization and decentralization processes shall be strengthened. Peripheral health units shall be made more
autonomous and effective in the operation of health services.
 For this, amendments shall be required in the existing Decentralization Regulation.

(b) Out of the various organizations providing health services atdifferent levels, the district health organizations shall be given a most prominent role. Arrangements shall be made for local level planning and management of curative and promotive health services, with priority given to preventive health services, from the district to the village level.

(c) Micro planning procedures shall be adopted in the formulation of primary health plans at the village level under which health services shall be provided to all target groups particularly to those people who are below the poverty line.

14. Blood Transfusion Services

(a) The Nepal Red Cross Society shall be authorized to carry out all programmes related to blood transfusion.

(b) In order to run different programmes related to blood transfusion, the Nepal Red Cross Society shall seek consent of the Ministry of Health and shall run such programmes.

(c) The practice of buying, selling and depositing (Dharauti) of
blood shall be prohibited.

15. Miscellaneous

(a )Safety standards shall be developed for industrial establishments for the health security of the workers engaged
in industries and their implementation shall be monitored.

(b)Necessary Heath Acts and regulations shall be formulated to safeguard the health of people.

(c) Extensive publicity shall be made on the hazardous effects of drug abuse, alcoholic drinks and smoking.

(d) Programmes relating to the rehabilitation of the disabled and handicapped persons shall be prepared in coordination with the private sector and non-government organizations.

 

1. Background

Wetlands are considered as fertile lands for agriculture and rich from the point of view of biological diversity. These wetlands provide habitat for several species of wildlife and lie within various ecosystems of highmountain and lowland plains. The wetlands of the country’s lowlands alone support 32 species of mammals, 461 species of birds (among which 15 species are rare), 9 species of turtle, 20 species of snake and 28 species of fish. Wetlands are home to several species of flora and fauna and play an important role in plant and animal diversity. Wetlands are also crucial in maintaining various sources of underground water, preventing landslides and controlling the loss of nutrients. These wetlands also provide ample opportunities for scientific research. The wetlands policy has been
formulated for planned conservation, maintenance and development of the country’s wetlands, while providing support to economic, social and cultural development of local communities by improving their living
conditions through wise use of these wetlands. Nepal has shown its commitment to wetlands conservation, specially
the conservation of waterfowl habitats of international importance, by signing the Ramsar Treaty 1971. The present wetlands policy is in conformity with the Article 3 (1) of the Convention and with regard to the
need for the preparation of a national policy deemed necessary by the signatory nations. The policy is also in conformity with the directives of the signatory nations passed by the contracting parties in 1996, regarding the mobilization of local communities for their active participation in the management of wetlands listed in the Ramsar Site as well as other wetlands and their watershed areas.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 2047, Nepal Treaty Act 2047, Local Self Governance Act 2055, Forest Act, 2049, Water Resources Act 2049, Electricity Act, 2049, National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2029, Aquatic Conservation Act 2017, Soil and Watershed
Conservation Act, 2039 and Environmental Protection Act, 2053 and the existing Regulations thereunder do not define wetlands and mention wetlands management. Since that these Acts and Regulations do not have
any provision for community participation in wetlands conservation and management through wise use of wetlands, the wetlands policy has taken into consideration all aspects.

2. Definition of Wetlands

Generally wetlands mean rivers, lakes, reservoirs and forests, and water logged lands in and around human habitation. The Nepali term for wetlands is “Simsar”, which means lands with perennial source of water. Swampy rice fields, water logged areas and ponds are also understood as wetlands in the country. There are about 50 different definitions of wetlands in the world. Plants, animals and birds are abundant in wetlands. Twelve different words are commonly used to denote wetlands in Nepal. In this sense, wetlands could be defined in the following way –
“Wetlands denote perennial water bodies that originate from underground sources of water or rains. It means swampy areas with flowing or stagnant fresh or salt water that are natural or man-made, or permanent or temporary. Wetlands also mean marshy lands, riverine floodplains, lakes, ponds, water storage areas and agricultural lands.”

3. Goal

The primary goal of the National Wetlands Policy is to conserve and manage wetlands resources wisely and in a sustainable way with local people’s participation. The policy also aims to put the conservation and management aspects of wetlands conservation within the framework of broader environmental management.

Other Objective

4.1 Identify Nepal’s wetlands and prepare detailed management plans for each of them to prevent degradation and disappearance of wetlands with long-term conservation and development initiatives for wise use
of wetlands resources by implementing the management plans on the basis of priorities, potentiality and urgency.

4.2 Identify local people’s knowledge, skill and practice regarding wetlands and promote their innovations and traditional research for the sustainable use of wetlands resources.

4.3 Conserve and manage wetlands according to the needs and on the basis of scientific knowledge and technology.

4.4 Promote women’s participation for the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands.

4.5 Gradually implement international treaties for wetlands conservation.

4.6 Disseminate information to raise public awareness about wetlands.

5. Wetlands Management Policy Based on Local Participation

5.1 Conserve and manage wetlands with local people’s participation for their benefit, while maintaining environmental integrity according to the terms and spirit of the Ramsar Treaty.

5.2 Translate into reality the concept of wise use of wetland resources by providing equitable opportunities on the basis of local people’s participatory management of wetlands.

5.3 Make wetlands conservation and management activities effective by involving local residents, communities and community-based organizations.

5.4 Conduct social and economic development activities that are advantageous to local residents and conserve natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

5.5 Conserve endangered and common wildlife species, aquatic fauna and other genetic sources dependant on wetlands.

5.6 Develop environmental friendly tourism with minimum environmental impacts and mobilize acquired profits, as far as practicable, for wetlands management and the benefit of local people.

5.7 Ensure local people’s participation in the preparation of work plans for the conservation and management of wetlands.

5.8 Preserve the experience, practice, skill and knowledge of the different groups of people who are dependant on wetlands, and promote wetlands conservation and management on the basis of their experience.

5.9 Identify the problems and issues pertaining to wetlands management and implement the management action plan prepared with local people’s participation to address the issues at the local level.

5.10 Formulate wetlands management plan and make necessary legal and administrative arrangements for the representation of local people and organizations in the management committee.

 

6. Classification of Wetlands and Management Policy:

Wetlands have been classified into three categories management prespectives.5 4
(a) Wetlands that lie within protected areas or buffer zones.

(b) Government or public wetlands that lie outside the protected
areas.

(c) Wetlands in private land.

6.1 Conduct regular studies on the status of wetlands that lie within the protected areas or buffer zones, or the government or public wetlands that lie outside the protected areas, or the wetlands inside private lands, and find out where there is comparatively better conservation and management work.

6.2 Make arrangements to entrust the management responsibilities of wetlands that fall within national parks and wildlife reserves to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation.

6.3 Make arrangements to entrust the management responsibilities of wetlands that fall within the conservation area to the concerned body.

6.4 Formulate necessary legal arrangements to make the wetlands management activities effective by maintaining coordination and integrating the rights and jurisdictions of concerned bodies if the wetlands are being managed by different bodies.

6.5 Determine appropriate models of leasehold wetlands, community wetlands, privately managed wetlands and jointly managed wetlands for the effective conservation and management of public wetlands that lie outside the protected areas, and manage them accordingly.

6.6 Enhance local people’s participation in buffer zone management by promoting the wise use of wetlands resources.

6.7 Grant recognition to private or privately owned wetlands as private wetlands and provide necessary training and technical support to enhance the technical and management capacity of the owners of such wetlands. Also, regulate and systematize the wise and sustainable use of wetlands resources along with the protection of genetic resources, conservation of animals, organisms, and birds that are dependant on wetlands.

6.8 Discourage any activities that could change the land use pattern or degrade wetlands or exert negative impact on wetlands to ensure the conservation of private wetland sites.

6.9 Make necessary arrangements for the equitable distribution of benefits arising from wetlands to local inhabitants who are dependent on wetlands.

6.10 Formulate and implement integrated action plan that encourages multidimensional model and promotes wetlands conservation.

7. Policy Regarding the Wise Use of Wetlands

There should be wise and sustainable use of wetlands to protect the natural heritage of ecosystems for the wellbeing of human race. The techniques of wise use of wetlands are applied in the conservation and management of the Ramsar Sites or other wetlands. The policy on the wise use of wetlands emphasizes on rational, thoughtful and judicious use of wetland resources. The policy as to the wise use of wetlands resources adopts the following aspects of wetland conservation –

7.1 Prepare a national-level inventory of wetlands

7.2 Identify the importance and benefits of wetlands by collecting basic information and statistics on management practices of wise use of wetlands. Recognize and prioritize important wetland sites on the basis of their
social, economic, religious, cultural and historical significance. Allocate funds for projects that promote wetlands conservation and the sustainable use of wetlands resources. Conserve flora and fauna without allowing misuse or overuse of

7.3 Recognize and prioritize important wetland sites on the basis of their social, economic, religious, cultural and historical significance.

7.4 Allocate funds for projects that promote wetlands conservation and the sustainable use of wetlands resources.

7.5 Conserve flora and fauna without allowing misuse or overuse of wetlands resources.

7.6 Make provisions for environmental impact assessment according to prevalent laws prior to approving development programmes and activities around wetlands.

7.7  Ensure environmental protection by regularly monitoring development programmes and activities around wetlands. 

6. Classification of Wetlands and Management Policy:

Wetlands have been classified into three categories management prespectives.5 4

(a) Wetlands that lie within protected areas or buffer zones.

(b) Government or public wetlands that lie outside the protected areas.

(c) Wetlands in private land.

6.1 Conduct regular studies on the status of wetlands that lie within the protected areas or buffer zones, or the government or public wetlands that lie outside the protected areas, or the wetlands inside private lands, and find out where there is comparatively better conservation and management work.

6.2 Make arrangements to entrust the management responsibilities of wetlands that fall within national parks and wildlife reserves to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation.

6.3 Make arrangements to entrust the management responsibilities of wetlands that fall within the conservation area to the concerned body.

6.4 Formulate necessary legal arrangements to make the wetlands management activities effective by maintaining coordination and integrating the rights and jurisdictions of concerned bodies if the
wetlands are being managed by different bodies.

6.5 Determine appropriate models of leasehold wetlands, community wetlands, privately managed wetlands and jointly managed wetlands for the effective conservation and management of public wetlands that lie outside the protected areas, and manage them accordingly.

6.6 Enhance local people’s participation in buffer zone management by promoting the wise use of wetlands resources.

6.7 Grant recognition to private or privately owned wetlands as private wetlands and provide necessary training and technical support to enhance the technical and management capacity of the owners of such wetlands. Also, regulate and systematize the wise and sustainable use of wetlands resources along with the protection of genetic resources,  conservation of animals, organisms, and birds that are dependant on wetlands.

6.8 Discourage any activities that could change the land use pattern or degrade wetlands or exert negative impact on wetlands to ensure the conservation of private wetland sites.

6.9 Make necessary arrangements for the equitable distribution of benefits arising from wetlands to local inhabitants who are dependant on wetlands.

6.10 Formulate and implement integrated action plan that encourages multidimensional model and promotes wetlands conservation.

 

8. Policy Regarding the Promotion of Awareness

conservation awareness among the communities living close to the  wetland sites, and also take the programme to local people, businessmen, industrialists, politicians, law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders.

8.2 Conduct awareness programmes in view of the possibility of overuse of wetlands resources by local communities while fulfilling their needs

8.3 Identify important stakeholders from the point of view of wetlands conservation and management, and make them aware of the importance of wetlands, their functions and the benefits of conservation.

8.4 Since that the success of wetlands conservation and wise use of wetlands resources depend on the active participation of local inhabitants, take steps to empower and make them aware of the importance of wetlands conservation for their active participation in the wise use of wetlands resources. The awareness activities should be especially focused on specific groups such as the Majhi, who live around wetlands and depend on wetlands resources for their livelihoods.

8.5 Encourage the active role of local bodies, educational institutions, NGOs and the media to inform local people and make them aware of the importance of wetlands ecosystems as well as the legal and administrative provisions pertaining to wetlands conservation.

8.6 Disseminate and publicize information on wetlands along with the status, maps, policies and laws pertaining to wetland conservation through audio-visual and other medium of communication.