1. Constitution as the fundamental law:
(1) This Constitution is the fundamental
law of Nepal. Any law inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of
such inconsistency, be void.
(2) It shall be the duty of every person to observe this Constitution.
2. Sovereignty and state authority: The sovereignty and state authority of Nepal
shall be vested in the Nepalese people. It shall be exercised in accordance with the
provisions set forth in this Constitution.
3. Nation: All the Nepalese people, with multiethnic, multilingual, multi-religious,
multicultural characteristics and in geographical diversities, and having common
aspirations and being united by a bond of allegiance to national independence,
territorial integrity, national interest and prosperity of Nepal, collectively constitute
4. State of Nepal:
(1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular,
inclusive, democratic, socialism-oriented, federal democratic republican state.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “secular” means religious,
cultural freedoms, including protection of religion, culture handed down from the
(2) The territory of Nepal shall comprise:
(a) the territory existing at the time of commencement of this
(b) such other territory as may be acquired after the
commencement of this Constitution.
5. National interest:
(1) Safeguarding of the freedom, sovereignty, territorial
integrity, nationality, independence and dignity of Nepal, the rights of the Nepalese
people, border security, economic wellbeing and prosperity shall be the basic
elements of the national interest of Nepal.
(2) Any conduct and act contrary to the national interest shall be
punishable by the Federal law.
6. Languages of the nation: All languages spoken as the mother tongues in Nepal
are the languages of the nation.
7. Official language: (1) The Nepali language in the Devnagari script shall be the
official language of Nepal.
(2) A State may, by a State law, determine one or more than one
languages of the nation spoken by a majority of people within the State as its
official language(s), in addition to the Nepali language.
(3) Other matters relating to language shall be as decided by the
Government of Nepal, on recommendation of the Language Commission.
8. National flag: (1) The national flag of Nepal consists of two juxtaposed triangular
figures with a crimson-coloured base and deep blue borders, there being a white
emblem of the crescent moon with eight rays visible out of sixteen in the upper
part and a white emblem of a twelve rayed sun in the lower part.
(2) The method of drawing out the flag and other particulars relating
thereto shall be as set forth in Schedule-1.
9. National anthem etc:
(1) The national anthem of Nepal shall be as set forth in
(2) The coat-of-arms of Nepal shall be as set forth in Schedule-3.
(3) The Rhododendron Arboreum shall be the national flower, Crimson
Colour shall be the national colour, the Cow shall be the national animal and the
Lophophorus shall be the national bird of Nepal.