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Constitution of Nepal

Preamble

We, the Sovereign People of Nepal,

Internalizing the people’s sovereign right and right to autonomy and self-rule, while
maintaining freedom, sovereignty, territorial integrity, national unity, independence and
dignity of Nepal,

Recalling the glorious history of historic people’s movements, armed conflict, dedication
and sacrifice undertaken by the Nepalese people at times for the interest of the nation,
democracy and progressive changes, and respecting for the martyrs and disappeared and
victim citizens,

Ending all forms of discrimination and oppression created by the feudalistic, autocratic,
centralized, unitary system of governance,

Protecting and promoting social and cultural solidarity, tolerance and harmony, and unity
in diversity by recognizing the multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural
and diverse regional characteristics, resolving to build an egalitarian society founded on
the proportional inclusive and participatory principles in order to ensure economic
equality, prosperity and social justice, by eliminating discrimination based on class, caste,
region, language, religion and gender and all forms of caste-based untouchability, and
Being committed to socialism based on democratic norms and values including the
people’s competitive multiparty democratic system of governance, civil liberties,
fundamental rights, human rights, adult franchise, periodic elections, full freedom of the

press, and independent, impartial and competent judiciary and concept of the rule of law,
and build a prosperous nation,
Do hereby pass and promulgate this Constitution, through the Constituent Assembly, in
order to fulfil the aspirations for sustainable peace, good governance, development and
prosperity through the federal, democratic, republican, system of governance.

Part-1 Preliminary

Preliminary

1. Constitution as the fundamental law:

(1) This Constitution is the fundamental
law of Nepal. Any law inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of
such inconsistency, be void.

(2) It shall be the duty of every person to observe this Constitution.

2. Sovereignty and state authority: The sovereignty and state authority of Nepal
shall be vested in the Nepalese people. It shall be exercised in accordance with the
provisions set forth in this Constitution.

3. Nation: All the Nepalese people, with multiethnic, multilingual, multi-religious,
multicultural characteristics and in geographical diversities, and having common
aspirations and being united by a bond of allegiance to national independence,
territorial integrity, national interest and prosperity of Nepal, collectively constitute
the nation.

4. State of Nepal:

(1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular,
inclusive, democratic, socialism-oriented, federal democratic republican state.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “secular” means religious,
cultural freedoms, including protection of religion, culture handed down from the
time immemorial.

(2) The territory of Nepal shall comprise:

(a) the territory existing at the time of commencement of this
Constitution, and

(b) such other territory as may be acquired after the
commencement of this Constitution.

5. National interest:

(1) Safeguarding of the freedom, sovereignty, territorial
integrity, nationality, independence and dignity of Nepal, the rights of the Nepalese
people, border security, economic wellbeing and prosperity shall be the basic
elements of the national interest of Nepal.

(2) Any conduct and act contrary to the national interest shall be
punishable by the Federal law.

6. Languages of the nation: All languages spoken as the mother tongues in Nepal
are the languages of the nation.

7. Official language: (1) The Nepali language in the Devnagari script shall be the
official language of Nepal.

(2) A State may, by a State law, determine one or more than one
languages of the nation spoken by a majority of people within the State as its
official language(s), in addition to the Nepali language.

(3) Other matters relating to language shall be as decided by the
Government of Nepal, on recommendation of the Language Commission.

8. National flag: (1) The national flag of Nepal consists of two juxtaposed triangular
figures with a crimson-coloured base and deep blue borders, there being a white
emblem of the crescent moon with eight rays visible out of sixteen in the upper
part and a white emblem of a twelve rayed sun in the lower part.

(2) The method of drawing out the flag and other particulars relating
thereto shall be as set forth in Schedule-1.

9. National anthem etc:

(1) The national anthem of Nepal shall be as set forth in
Schedule-2.

(2) The coat-of-arms of Nepal shall be as set forth in Schedule-3.

(3) The Rhododendron Arboreum shall be the national flower, Crimson
Colour shall be the national colour, the Cow shall be the national animal and the
Lophophorus shall be the national bird of Nepal.

Part-2 Citizenship

Citizenship

10. Not to deprive of citizenship:

(1) No citizen of Nepal may be deprived of the
right to obtain citizenship.

(2) There is a provision of single federal citizenship with State identity
in Nepal.

11. To be citizens of Nepal:

(1) The persons who have obtained the citizenship of
Nepal at the time of commencement of this Constitution and who are qualified to
obtain citizenship in accordance with this Part shall be the citizens of Nepal.

(2) The following person who has his or her permanent domicile in
Nepal at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall be the citizen of
Nepal by descent:

(a) a person who has obtained the citizenship of Nepal by descent prior to
the commencement of this Constitution,

(b) a person whose father or mother was a citizen of Nepal at his or her
birth.

(3) A child of a citizen having obtained the citizenship of Nepal by birth
prior to the commencement of Nepal shall, upon attaining majority, acquire the
citizenship of Nepal by descent if the child’s father and mother both are citizens of
Nepal.

(4) Every minor who is found within Nepal and the whereabouts of
whose father and mother are not known shall, until the father or the mother of the
child is traced, be a citizen of Nepal by descent.

(5) A person who is born in Nepal from a woman who is a citizen of
Nepal and has resided in Nepal and whose father is not traced shall be provided
with the citizenship of Nepal by descent.
Provided that his or her father is held to be a foreign citizen, the citizenship
of such person shall be converted into naturalized citizenship as provided for in
the Federal law.

(6) A foreign woman who has a matrimonial relationship with a citizen
of Nepal may, if she so wishes, acquire the naturalized citizenship of Nepal as
provided for in the Federal law.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, in the
case of a person born from a woman who is a citizen of Nepal and married to a
foreign citizen, the person may acquire the naturalized citizenship of Nepal in
accordance with the Federal law if he or she has permanently resided in Nepal and
has not acquired the citizenship of a foreign country.
Provided that if such person’s mother and father both are citizens of Nepal
at the time of acquisition of citizenship, such person born in Nepal may acquire
the citizenship of Nepal by descent.

(8) In the cases other than those mentioned in this Article, the
Government of Nepal may, in accordance with the Federal law, grant the
naturalized citizenship of Nepal.

(9) The Government of Nepal may, in accordance with the Federal law,
grant the honorary citizenship of Nepal.

(10) Whenever any territory is acquired by way of merger into Nepal, a
person having his or her domicile in such territory shall become a citizen of Nepal,
subject to the Federal law.

12. Citizenship with identity of descent and gender: A person who obtains the
citizenship of Nepal by descent in accordance with this Constitution may obtain a
certificate of citizenship of Nepal with gender identity by the name of his or her
mother or father.

13. Acquisition, reacquisition and termination of citizenship: Other matters
relating to the acquisition, reacquisition and termination of citizenship shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

14. Power to grant non-resident Nepalese citizenship: The non-residential
citizenship of Nepal may be so granted to a person who has acquired the
citizenship of a foreign country, has resided in a country other than a member state
of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, and who or whose
father or mother, grandfather or grandmother was previously a citizen of Nepal by
decent or birth but subsequently acquired the citizenship of the foreign country
that such person may enjoy economic, social and cultural rights in accordance
with the Federal law.

15. Other provisions relating to citizenship of Nepal: Other matters relating to the
maintenance of records setting out the identity of every citizen of Nepal and the
citizenship of Nepal shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

Part-3 Fundamental Rights and Duties

Fundamental Rights and Duties

16. Right to live with dignity:

(1) Every person shall have the right to live with
dignity.

(2) No law shall be made providing for the death penalty to any one.
17. Right to freedom:

(1) No person shall be deprived of his or her personal liberty
except in accordance with law.

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(a) freedom of opinion and expression,

(b) freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms,

(c) freedom to form political parties,

(d) freedom to form unions and associations,

(e) freedom to move and reside in any part of Nepal,

(f) freedom to practice any profession, carry on any occupation, and
establish and operate any industry, trade and business in any part of
Nepal.

Provided that:
(1) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine
the sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality and independence of
Nepal or the harmonious relations between the Federal Units or the
people of various castes, tribes, religions or communities or incite castebased
discrimination or untouchability or on any act of disrespect of
labour, defamation, contempt of court, incitement to an offence or on
any act which may be contrary to public decency or morality.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (b) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine
the sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality and independence of

Nepal or the harmonious relations between the Federal Units or public
peace and order.

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine
the sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality and independence of
Nepal, constitute an espionage against the nation or divulge national
secrecy or on any act of rendering assistance to any foreign state,
organization or representative in a manner to undermine the security of
Nepal or on an act of sedition or on any act which may undermine the
harmonious relations between the Federal Units or on any act of
incitement to caste-based or communal hatred or on any act which may
undermine the harmonious relations between various castes, tribes,
religions and communities, or on any act of acquisition of, or restriction
on, membership of any political party on the basis solely of tribe,
language, religion, community or sex or on any act of formation of a
political party with discrimination between citizens or on incitement to
violent acts or on any act which may be contrary to public morality.
(4) Nothing in sub-clause (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine
the sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality and independence of
Nepal, or on any act which may constitute espionage against the nation
or on any act of divulgence of national secrecy or on any act assisting
any foreign state, organization or representative in a manner to
undermine the security of Nepal or on an act of sedition or on any act
which may undermine the harmonious relations between the Federal
Units or on any act of incitement to caste-based or communal hatred or
on any act which may undermine the harmonious relations between
various castes, tribes, religions and communities or on incitement to
violent acts or on any act which may be contrary to public morality.

(5) Nothing in sub-clause (e) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine
the interest of the general public or which may undermine the
harmonious relations between the Federal Units or the harmonious
relations between the peoples of various castes, tribes, religions or
communities or which may constitute or incite violent acts.

(6) Nothing in sub-clause (f) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an
Act to prevent any act which may undermine the harmonious relations
between the Federal Units or any act which may be contrary to public
health, decency or morality of the general public or to confer on the
State the exclusive right to undertake any specific industry, trade or
service, or to prescribe any condition or qualification for carrying on
any industry, trade, occupation, employment or business.

18. Right to equality:

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be
denied the equal protection of law.

(2) No discrimination shall be made in the application of general laws
on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical condition, condition
of health, marital status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or region,
ideology or on similar other grounds.

(3) The State shall not discriminate citizens on grounds of origin,
religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language, region, ideology or
on similar other grounds.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special
provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or development of the citizens
including the socially or culturally backward women, Dalit, indigenous people,
indigenous nationalities, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, oppressed class,
Pichhadaclass, minorities, the marginalized, farmers, labours, youths, children,
senior citizens, gender and sexual minorities, persons with disabilities, persons in
pregnancy, incapacitated or helpless, backward region and indigent Khas Arya.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Part and Part 4, “indigent” means a person
who earns income less than that specified by the Federal law.

(4) No discrimination shall be made on the ground of gender with regard
to remuneration and social security for the same work.

(5) All offspring shall have the equal right to the ancestral property
without discrimination on the ground of gender.

19. Right to communication:

(1) No publication and broadcasting or dissemination or
printing of any news item, editorial, feature article or other reading, audio and
audio-visual material through any means whatsoever including electronic
publication, broadcasting and printing shall be censored.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of Acts to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty,
territorial integrity, nationality of Nepal or the harmonious relations between the
Federal Units or the harmonious relations between various castes, tribes, religions
or communities, or on any act of sedition, defamation or contempt of court or
incitement to an offence, or on any act which may be contrary to public decency or
morality, on any act of hatred to labour and on any act of incitement to caste-based
untouchability as well as gender discrimination.

(2) No radio, television, on-line or other form of digital or electronic
equipment, press or other means of communication publishing, broadcasting or
printing any news item, feature, editorial, article, information or other material
shall be closed or seized nor shall registration thereof be cancelled nor shall such
material be seized by the reason of publication, broadcasting or printing of such
material through any audio, audio-visual or electronic equipment.
Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall be deemed to prevent the
making of an Act to regulate radio, television, online or any other form of digital
or electronic equipment, press or other means of communication.

(3) No means of communication including the press, electronic
broadcasting and telephone shall be interrupted except in accordance with law.
20. Rights relating to justice:

(1) No person shall be detained in custody without
informing him or her of the ground for his or her arrest.

(2) Any person who is arrested shall have the right to consult a legal
practitioner of his or her choice from the time of such arrest and to be defended by
such legal practitioner. Any consultation made by such person with, and advice
given by, his or her legal practitioner shall be confidential.
Provided this clause shall not apply to a citizen of an enemy state.
Explanation: For the purpose of this clause, “legal practitioner” means any
person who is authorized by law to represent any person in any court.

(3) Any person who is arrested shall be produced before the
adjudicating authority within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest,
excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to such
authority; and any such person shall not be detained in custody except on the order
of such authority.
Provided that this clause shall not apply to a person held in preventive
detention and to a citizen of an enemy state.

(4) No person shall be liable for punishment for an act which was not
punishable by the law in force when the act was committed nor shall any person
be subjected to a punishment greater than that prescribed by the law in force at the
time of the commission of the offence.

(5) Every person charged with an offence shall be presumed innocent
until proved guilty of the offence.

(6) No person shall be tried and punished for the same offence in a court
more than once.

(7) No person charged with an offence shall be compelled to testify
against himself or herself.

(8) Every person shall have the right to be informed of any proceedings
taken against him or her.

(9) Every person shall have the right to a fair trial by an independent,
impartial and competent court or judicial body.

(10) Any indigent party shall have the right to free legal aid in
accordance with law.

21. Right of victim of crime:

(1) A victim of crime shall have the right to get
information about the investigation and proceedings of a case in which he or she is
the victim.

(2) A victim of crime shall have the right to justice including social
rehabilitation and compensation in accordance with law.
22. Right against torture:

(1) No person who is arrested or detained shall be subjected
to physical or mental torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

(2) Any act mentioned in clause (1) shall be punishable by law, and any
person who is the victim of such treatment shall have the right to obtain
compensation in accordance with law.

23. Right against preventive detention:

(1) No person shall be held under preventive
detention unless there is a sufficient ground of the existence of an immediate threat
to the sovereignty, territorial integrity or public peace and order of Nepal.

(2) Information about the situation of a person who is held under
preventive detention pursuant to clause (1) must be given immediately to his or
her family members or relatives.

Provided that this clause shall not apply to a citizen of an enemy state.
(3) If the authority making preventive detention holds any person under
preventive detention contrary to law or in bad faith, the person held under
preventive detention shall have the right to obtain compensation in accordance
with law.

24. Right against untouchability and discrimination: (1) No person shall be
subjected to any form of untouchability or discrimination in any private and public
places on grounds of his or her origin, caste, tribe, community, profession,
occupation or physical condition.

(2) In producing or distributing any goods, services or facilities, no
person belonging to any particular caste or tribe shall be prevented from
purchasing or acquiring such goods, services or facilities nor shall such goods,
services or facilities be sold, distributed or provided only to the persons belonging
to any particular caste or tribe.

(3) No act purporting to demonstrate any person or community as
superior or inferior on grounds of origin, caste, tribe or physical condition or
justifying social discrimination on grounds of caste, tribe or untouchability or
propagating ideology based on untouchability and caste based superiority or hatred
or encouraging caste-based discrimination in any manner whatsoever shall be
allowed.

(4) No discrimination in any form shall be allowed at a workplace with
or without making untouchability on the ground of caste.

(5) Any act of untouchability and discrimination in any for committed in
contravention of this Article shall be punishable by law as a severe social offence,
and the victim of such act shall have the right to obtain compensation in
accordance with law.

25. Right relating to property:

(1) Every citizen shall, subject to law, have the right
to acquire, own, sell, dispose, acquire business profits from, and otherwise deal
with, property.
Provided that the State may levy tax on property of a person, and tax on
income of a person in accordance with the concept of progressive taxation.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “property” means any form of
property including movable and immovable property, and includes an intellectual
property right.

(2) The State shall not, except for public interest, requisition, acquire, or
otherwise create any encumbrance on, property of a person.
Provided that this clause shall not apply to any property acquired by any
person illicitly.

(3) The basis of compensation to be provided and procedures to be
followed in the requisition by the State of property of any person for public
interest in accordance with clause (2) shall be as provided for in the Act.
(4) The provisions of clauses (2) and (3) shall not prevent the State from
making land reforms, management and regulation in accordance with lawfor the
purposes of enhancement of product and productivity of lands, modernization and
commercialization of agriculture, environment protection and planned housing and
urban development.
(5) Nothing shall prevent the State from using the property of any
person, which it has requisitioned for public interest in accordance with clause (3),
for any other public interest instead of such public interest.
26. Right to freedom of religion: (1) Every person who has faith in religion shall
have the freedom to profess, practice and protect his or her religion according to
his or her conviction.
(2) Every religious denomination shall have the right to operate and protect its religious sites and religious Guthi (trusts).

Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the regulation, by making
law, of the operation and protection of religious sites and religious trusts and
management of trust properties and lands.

(3) No person shall, in the exercise of the right conferred by this Article,
do, or cause to be done, any act which may be contrary to public health, decency
and morality or breach public peace, or convert another person from one religion
to another or any act or conduct that may jeopardize other’s religion and such act
shall be punishable by law.

27. Right to information: Every citizen shall have the right to demand and receive
information on any matter of his or her interest or of public interest.
Provided that no one shall be compelled to provide information on any
matter of which confidentiality must be maintained in accordance with law.
28. Right to privacy: The privacy of any person, his or her residence, property,
document, data, correspondence and matters relating to his or her character shall,
except in accordance with law, be inviolable.

29. Right against exploitation:

(1) Every person shall have the right against
exploitation.

(2) No person shall be exploited in any manner on the grounds of
religion, custom, tradition, usage, practice or on any other grounds.

(3) No one shall be subjected to trafficking nor shall one be held in
slavery or servitude.

(4) No one shall be forced to work against his or her will.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of law
empowering the State to require citizens to perform compulsory service for public
purposes.

(5) Act contrary to clauses (3) and (4) shall be punishable by law and
the victim shall have the right to obtain compensation from the perpetrator in
accordance with law.

30. Right to clean environment: (1) Every citizen shall have the right to live in a
clean and healthy environment.

(2) The victim shall have the right to obtain compensation, in
accordance with law, for any injury caused from environmental pollution or
degradation.

(3) This Article shall not be deemed to prevent the making of necessary
legal provisions for a proper balance between the environment and development,
in development works of the nation.

31. Right relating to education:

(1) Every citizen shall have the right of access to
basic education.

(2) Every citizen shall have the right to get compulsory and free
education up to the basic level and free education up to the secondary level from
the State.

(3) The citizens with disabilities and the economically indigent citizens
shall have the right to get free higher education in accordance with law.

(4) The visually impaired citizens shall have the right to get free
education through brail script and the citizens with hearing or speaking
impairment, to get free education through sign language, in accordance with law.

(5) Every Nepalese community residing in Nepal shall have the right to
get education in its mother tongue and, for that purpose, to open and operate
schools and educational institutes, in accordance with law.
32. Right to language and culture:

(1) Every person and community shall have the
right to use their languages.

(2) Every person and community shall have the right to participate in the
cultural life of their communities.

(3) Every Nepalese community residing in Nepal shall have the right to
preserve and promote its language, script, culture, cultural civilization and
heritage.

33. Right to employment:

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to employment. The
terms and conditions of employment, and unemployment benefit shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

(2) Every citizen shall have the right to choose employment.
34. Right to labour:

(1) Every labourer shall have the right to practice appropriate
labour.

Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “labourer” means a labourer or
worker who does physical or mental work for an employer in consideration for
remuneration.

(2) Every labourer shall have the right to appropriate remuneration,
facilities and contributory social security.

(3) Every labourer shall have the right to form and join trade unions and
to engage in collective bargaining, in accordance with law.

35. Right relating to health:

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to free basic health
services from the State, and no one shall be deprived of emergency health services.

(2) Every person shall have the right to get information about his or her
medical treatment.

(3) Every citizen shall have equal access to health services.

(4) Every citizen shall have the right of access to clean drinking water
and sanitation.

36. Right relating to food:

(1) Every citizen shall have the right relating to food.

(2) Every citizen shall have the right to be safe from the state of being in
danger of life from the scarcity of food.

(3) Every citizen shall have the right to food sovereignty in accordance
with law.

37. Right to housing:

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to an appropriate housing.
(2) No citizen shall be evicted from the residence owned by him or her
nor shall his or her residence be infringed except in accordance with law.
38. Rights of women:

(1) Every woman shall have equal lineage right without gender
based discrimination.

(2) Every woman shall have the right to safe motherhood and
reproductive health.

(3) No woman shall be subjected to physical, mental, sexual,
psychological or other form of violence or exploitation on grounds of religion,
social, cultural tradition, practice or on any other grounds. Such act shall be
punishable by law, and the victim shall have the right to obtain compensation in
accordance with law.

(4) Women shall have the right to participate in all bodies of the State on
the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.

(5) Women shall have the right to obtain special opportunity in
education, health, employment and social security, on the basis of positive
discrimination.

(6) The spouse shall have the equal right to property and family affairs.
39. Rights of the child:

(1) Every child shall have the right to name and birth
registration along with his or her identity.

(2) Every child shall have the right to education, health, maintenance,
proper care, sports, entertainment and overall personality development from the
families and the State.

(3) Every child shall have the right to elementary child development and
child participation.

(4) No child shall be employed to work in any factory, mine or engaged
in similar other hazardous work.

(5) No child shall be subjected to child marriage, transported illegally,
abducted/kidnapped or taken in hostage.

(6) No child shall be recruited or used in army, police or any armed
group, or be subjected, in the name of cultural or religious traditions, to abuse,
exclusion or physical, mental, sexual or other form of exploitation or improper use
by any means or in any manner.

(7) No child shall be subjected to physical, mental or any other form of
torture in home, school or other place and situation whatsoever.

(8) Every child shall have the right to juvenile friendly justice.

(9) The child who is helpless, orphan, with disabilities, conflict victim,
displaced or vulnerable shall have the right to special protection and facilities from
the State.

(10) Any act contrary to in clauses (4), (5), (6) and (7) shall be punishable
by law, and a child who is the victim of such act shall have the right to obtain
compensation from the perpetrator, in accordance with law.

40. Rights of Dalit:

(1) The Dalit shall have the right to participate in all bodies of the
State on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion. Special provision shall
be made by law for the empowerment, representation and participation of the Dalit
community in public services as well as other sectors of employment.

(2) Provision of free education with scholarship, from primary to higher
education, shall be made by law for the Dalit students. Special provision shall be
made by law for the Dalit in technical and vocational education.

(3) Special provision shall be made by law in order to provide health
and social security to the Dalit community.

(4) The Dalit community shall have the right to use, protect and develop
their traditional occupation, knowledge, skill and technology. The State shall
accord priority to the Dalit community in modern business related with their
traditional occupation and provide skills and resources required therefore.

(5) The State shall once provide land to the landless Dalit in accordance
with law.

(6) The State shall, in accordance with law, arrange settlement for the
Dalit who do not have housing.

(7) The facilities conferred by this Article to the Dalit community must
be distributed in a just manner so that the Dalit women, men and Dalit in all
communities can obtain such facilities proportionately.

41. Rights of senior citizens: The senior citizens shall have the right to special
protection and social security from the State.

42. Right to social justice:(1) The socially backward women, Dalit, indigenous
people, indigenous nationalities, Madhesi, Tharu, minorities, persons with
disabilities, marginalized communities, Muslims, backward classes, gender and
sexual minorities, youths, farmers, labourers, oppressed or citizens of backward
regions and indigent Khas Aryashall have the right to participate in the State
bodies on the basis of inclusive principle.

(2) The indigent citizens and citizens of the communities on the verge of
extinction shall have the right to get special opportunities and benefits in
education, health, housing, employment, food and social security for their
protection, upliftment, empowerment and development.

(3) The citizens with disabilities shall have the right to live with dignity
and honour, with the identity of their diversity, and have equal access to public
services and facilities.

(4) Every farmer shall have the right to have access to lands for agro
activities, select and protect local seeds and agro species which have been used
and pursued traditionally, in accordance with law.

(5) The families of the martyrs who have sacrificed their life, persons
who were forced to disappear, and those who became disabled and injured in all
people’s movements, armed conflicts and revolutions that have been carried out for
progressive democratic changes in Nepal, democracy fighters, conflict victims and
displaced ones, persons with disabilities, the injured and victims shall have the
right to get a prioritized opportunity, with justice and due respect, in education,
health, employment, housing and social security, in accordance with law.

43. Right to social security: The indigent citizens, incapacitated and helpless citizens,
helpless single women, citizens with disabilities, children, citizens who cannot
take care themselves and citizens belonging to the tribes on the verge of extinction
shall have the right to social security, in accordance with law.
44. Rights of the consumer: (1) Every consumer shall have the right to obtain quality
goods and services.
(2) A person who has suffered injury from any substandard goods or
services shall have the right to obtain compensation in accordance with law.
45. Right against exile: No citizen shall be exiled.

46. Right to constitutional remedies: There shall be a right to obtain constitutional
remedies in the manner set forth in Article 133 or 144 for the enforcement of the
rights conferred by this Part.

47. Implementation of fundamental rights: The State shall, as required, make legal provisions for the implementation of the rights conferred by this Part, within three
years of the commencement of this Constitution.

48. Duties of citizens:

Every citizen shall have the following duties:
(a) to safeguard the nationality, sovereignty and integrity of Nepal, while
being loyal to the nation,
(b) to abide by the Constitution and law,
(c) to render compulsory service as and when the State so requires,
(d) to protect and preserve public property.

Part-4 Directive Principles, Policies and Obligations of the State

Directive Principles, Policies and Obligations of the State

49. To be guiding principles:

(1) The directive principles, policies and obligations set
forth in this Part shall be the guiding principles for the governance of the State.

(2) The State shall mobilize, or cause to be mobilized, means and
resources, as required, to implement the principles, policies and obligations set
forth in this Part.

50. Directive principles:

(1) The political objective of the State shall be to establish a
public welfare system of governance, by establishing a just system in all aspects of
the national life through the rule of law, values and norms of fundamental rights
and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social
justice, while at the same time protecting the life, property, equality and liberties of
the people, in keeping with the vitality of freedom, sovereignty, territorial
integrity and independence of Nepal, and to consolidate a federal democratic
republican system of governance in order to ensure an atmosphere conducive to
the enjoyment of the fruits of democracy, while at the same time maintaining the
relations between the Federal Units on the basis of cooperative federalism and
incorporating the principle of proportional participation in the system of
governance on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization.

(2) The social and cultural objective of the State shall be to build a
civilized and egalitarian society by eliminating all forms of discrimination,
exploitation and injustice on the grounds of religion, culture, tradition, usage,
custom, practice or on any other similar grounds, to develop social, cultural values
founded on national pride, democracy, pro-people, respect of labour,
entrepreneurship, discipline, dignity and harmony, and to consolidate the national
unity by maintaining social cohesion, solidarity and harmony, while recognizing
cultural diversity.

(3) The economic objective of the State shall be to achieve a sustainable
economic development, while achieving rapid economic growth, by way of
maximum mobilization of the available means and resources through participation
and development of public, private and cooperatives, and to develop a socialismoriented
independent and prosperous economy while making the national economy
independent, self-reliant and progressive in order to build an exploitation free
society by abolishing economic inequality through equitable distribution of the
gains.

(4) The State shall direct its international relations towards enhancing
the dignity of the nation in the world community by maintaining international
relations on the basis of sovereign equality, while safeguarding the freedom,
sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence and national interest of Nepal.
51. Policies of the State:

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(a) Policies relating to national unity and national security:
(1) to keep intact the national unity, while protecting the freedom,
sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Nepal,

(2) to promote the national unity while developing mutual cooperative
relations between the Federal Units by maintaining mutual cohesion,
harmony and solidarity between various castes, tribes, religions,
languages, cultures and communities,

(3) to maintain law and order by developing a national security system,

(4) to guarantee the overall human security system,

(5) to make all security organs, including the Nepal Army, Nepal Police
and Armed Police Force Nepal, competent, strong, professional,
inclusive and accountable to the people, on the basis of national
security policies,

(6) to make and keep the citizens ready and competent to serve the
nation as and when necessary

(7) to make proper use, in nations’ interest, of the knowledge, skills and
experiences of former public employees including former
employees, military and police.

(b) Policies relating to political and governance system of State:

(1) to guarantee the best interests and prosperity of the people through
economic, social and cultural transformations, while safeguarding,
consolidating and developing political achievements,

(2) to maintain rule of law by protecting and promoting human rights,

(3) to implement international treaties, agreements to which Nepal is a
party,

(4) to guarantee good governance by ensuring the equal and easy access
of the people to the services and facilities delivered by the State,
while making public administration fair, competent, impartial,
transparent, free from corruption, accountable and participatory,

(5) to make necessary provisions to make mass media fair, healthy,
impartial, decent, responsible and professional,

(6) to develop and expand harmonious and cooperative relations
between the Federal Units by way of sharing of responsibilities,
resources and administration between them.

(c) Relating to social and cultural transformation:

(1) to build the society founded on cordial social relations by developing
a healthy and civilized culture,

(2) to carrying out studies, research works, excavation and
dissemination for the protection, promotion and development of
ancient, archaeological and cultural heritages,

(3) to make community development through enhancement of local
public participation, by promoting and mobilizing the creativity of
local communities in social, cultural and service-oriented works,

(4) to focus on the development of arts, literature and music which form
national heritages,

(5) to end all forms of discrimination, inequality, exploitation and
injustice in the name of religion, custom, usage, practice and
tradition existing in the society,

(6) to protect and develop languages, scripts, culture, literature, arts,
motion pictures and heritages of various castes, tribes,and
communities on the basis of equality and co-existence, while
maintaining the cultural diversity of the country,

(7) to pursue a multi-lingual policy.

(d) Relating to economy, industry and commerce:

(1) to enhance national economy through partnership and independent
development of the public, private and cooperative sectors,

(2) to achieve economic prosperity by way of optimum mobilization of
the available means and resources, while focusing on the role of
private sector in economy,

(3) to promote the cooperative sector and mobilize it in national
development to the maximum extent,

(4) to encourage and mobilize the economic sector in the overall
national development, while providing for regulation to maintain
fairness, accountability and competition in all of its activities,

(5) to make equitable distribution of the available means and resources
and benefits of economic development,

(6) to diversify and expand markets for goods and services, while
promoting exports through development and expansion of industries
upon identifying areas of comparative advantage,

(7) to protect the interests of consumers by maintaining trade fairness
and discipline by making national economy competitive, while
ending activities such as creating black marketing, monopoly,
artificial scarcity and restricting competition,

(8) to protect and promote domestic industries and resources and accord
priority to domestic investment based on Nepalese labour, skills and
raw materials for the development of national economy,

(9) to give priority to domestic investment for the development of
national economy,

(10) to encourage foreign capital and technological investment in areas of
import substitution and export promotion, in consonance with
national interest, and encourage and mobilize such investment in
infrastructure building,

(11) to make the obtaining of foreign assistance transparent, while
making the national needs and priorities as the basis for obtaining
foreign assistance, and incorporating amounts received in form of
foreign assistance in the national budget,

(12) to utilize knowledge, skill, technology and capital of the nonresident
Nepalese in the national development,

(13) to give dynamism to the economic development by establishing
coordination between the States and the States and the Federation in
relation to industrial corridors, special economic zones, national
projects and projects involving foreign investment.

(e) Policies relating to agriculture and land reforms:

(1) to make scientific land reforms having regard to the interests of the
farmers, while ending the dual ownership existing in the lands,

(2) to enhance product and productivity by carrying out land pooling,
while discouraging inactive land ownership,

(3) to make land management and commercialization, industrialization,
diversification and modernization of agriculture, by pursuing landuse
policies to enhance agriculture product and productivity, while
protecting and promoting the rights and interests of the farmers,

(4) to make proper use of lands, while regulating and managing lands on
the basis of, inter alia, productivity, nature of lands and ecological
balance,

(5) to provide for the farmers’ access to agricultural inputs, agroproducts
at fair price and market.

(f) Policies relating to development:

(1) to formulate sustainable socio-economic development strategies and
programs under the regional development plan for inclusive
economic development with regional balance, and implement them
in a coordinative manner,

(2) to develop balanced, environment friendly, quality and sustainable
physical infrastructures, while according priority to the regions
lagging behind from development perspective,

(3) to enhance local public participation in the process of development
works,

(4) to enhance investment in scientific study, research works and in
invention, progress and development of science and technology, and
protect scientists, technologists, intellectual and eminent talents,

(5) to ensure easy and simple access of the general public to information
technology by developing and expanding information technology to
the tune of national needs, and make optimum utilization of
information technology in the national development,

(6) to make provisions enabling the general public to enjoy fruits of
development in a just manner, while according priority to the
indigent citizens in the distribution of such fruits,

(7) to develop an integrated national identity management information
system and manage all kinds of information and data of the citizens
in an integrated manner, and linking such system with the services
and facilities provided by the State and with national development
plans,

(8) to update demographic statistics and linking it with national
development plans.

(g) Policies relating to protection, promotion and use of natural resources:

(1) to protect, promote, and make environmental friendly and
sustainable use of, natural resources available in the country, in
consonance with national interest and adopting the concept of intergenerational
equity, and make equitable distribution of fruits,
according priority and preferential right to the local communities,

(2) to make multi-purpose development of water resources, while
according priority to domestic investment based on public
participation,

(3) to ensure reliable supply of energy in an affordable and easy manner,
and make proper use of energy, for the fulfilment of the basic needs
of citizens, by generating and developing renewable energy,

(4) to develop sustainable and reliable irrigation by making control of
water-induced disasters, and river management,

(5) to conserve, promote, and make sustainable use of, forests, wildlife,
birds, vegetation and bio-diversity, by mitigating possible risks to
environment from industrial and physical development, while raising
awareness of general public about environment cleanliness,

(6) to maintain the forest area in necessary lands forecological balance,

(7) to adopt appropriate measures to abolish or mitigate existing or
possible adverse environmental impacts on the nature, environment
or biological diversity,

(8) to pursue the principles of environmentally sustainable development
such as the principles of polluter pays, of precaution in
environmental protection and of prior informed consent.

(9) to make advance warning, preparedness, rescue, relief and
rehabilitation in order to mitigate risks from natural disasters.

(h) Policies relating to basic needs of the citizens:
(1) to prepare human resources that are competent, competitive, ethical,
and devoted to national interests, while making education scientific,
technical, vocational, empirical, employment and people-oriented,

(2) to make private sector investment made in education serviceoriented
by regulating and managing such investment, while
enhancing the State’s investment in the education sector,

(3) to make higher education easy, qualitative and accessible, and free
gradually,

(4) to establish and promote community information centres and
libraries for the personality development of citizens,

(5) to keep on enhancing investment necessary in the public health
sector by the State in order to make the citizens healthy,

(6) to ensure easy, convenient and equal access of all to quality health
services,

(7) to protect and promote health systems including Ayurveda, as a
traditional medical system of Nepal, natural therapy and homeopathy
system,

(8) to make private sector investment in the health sector serviceoriented
by regulating and managing such investment, while
enhancing the State’s investment in this sector,

(9) to focus on health research and keep on increasing the number of
health institutions and health workers in order to make health
services widely available and qualitative,

(10) to increase average life expectancy by reducing maternal and infant
mortality rate, while encouraging family planning for population
management on the basis of Nepal’s capacity and need,

(11) to manage unplanned settlement and develop planned and systematic
settlement,

(12) to provide for sustainable production, supplies, storage, security, and
easy and effective distribution of foods by encouraging food
production in tune with climate and soil, in consonance with the
concept of food sovereignty, while enhancing investment in the
agriculture sector,

(13) to ensure planned supply system by according special priority to the
remote and backward regions, while ensuring equal access of all
citizens to basic goods and services,

(14) to enhance investment in the transportation sector, while ensuring
simple, easy and equal access of the citizens to transportation
facilities, and to make the transportation sector safe, systematic and
persons with disabilities friendly by encouraging public
transportation and regulating private transportation, while according
priority to the environment friendly technologies,

(15) to arrange for access to medical treatment while ensuring citizen’s
health insurance.

(i) Policies relating to labour and employment:

(1) to make competent and professional the labour force that has
remained as the main socio-economic strength of the country and
enhance employment within the country, while ensuring a situation
enabling all to work,

(2) to guarantee social security, while ensuring the basic rights of all
labours, in consonance with the concept of decent labour,

(3) to abolish all forms of labour exploitation including child labour,

(4) to encourage participation of labours in management, while maintain
cordial relations between the labours and entrepreneurs

,
(5) to regulate and manage the sector in order to make foreign
employment free from exploitation, safe and systematic and to
guarantee employment and rights of the labours,

(6) to encourage to mobilize the capital, skills, technology and
experience gained from foreign employment in productive sectors in
the country.

(j) Policies relating to social justice and inclusion:

(1) to keep on making appropriate arrangements for the livelihoods of
the helpless single women, while according priority to them in
employment on the basis of skills, competency and qualification,

(2) to make self-dependent the women who are vulnerable, subjected to
social and family exclusion and victims of violence self-reliant by
making their rehabilitation, protection and empowerment,

(3) to ensure enjoyment of requisite services and facilities at the
reproductive stage,

(4) to evaluate economically the work and contribution such as
maintenance of children and care of families,

(5) to take into consideration primarily of the best interests of the child,

(6) to identify the freed bonded labours, Kamlari, Harawa, Charawa,
tillers, landless, squatters and rehabilitate them by providing
housing, housing plot for residence and cultivable land or
employment for their livelihoods,

(7) to create an atmosphere conducive to the full enjoyment of the
political, economic, social and cultural rights, while enhancing the
participation of youths in national development, to make their
personality development, while providing special opportunity in
areas including education, health and employment for the
empowerment and development of the youths and provide them with
appropriate opportunities for the overall development of the State,

(8) to make the indigenous nationalities participate in decisions
concerning that community by making special provisions for
opportunities and benefits in order to ensure the right of these
nationalities to live with dignity, along with their identity, and
protect and promote traditional knowledge, skill, culture, social
tradition and experience of the indigenous nationalities and local
communities,

(9) to make special provisions for opportunities and benefits to minority
communities to enjoy social and cultural rights, with maintaining
their identity,

(10) to make special provisions for equal distribution of economic, social
and cultural opportunities and benefits to the Madhesi community,
Muslims and backward class, and for opportunities and benefits to
the indigent citizens within such communities for their protection,
upliftment, empowerment and development,

(11) to make special provisions for opportunities and benefits for the
protection, upliftment, empowerment and development of the
citizens of the oppressed and backward regions and for the
fulfilment of their basic needs,

(12) to accord priority to the indigent within all sexes, regions and
communities in the provision of social security and social justice,

(13) to make planned investment in sports and sport-persons in order to
prepare healthy, competent and disciplined citizens, and to develop
sports as a means of consolidating national unity and enhancing
national prestige at the international level,

(14) to adopt a single door system for the establishment, approval,
operation, regulation and management of community-based and
national or international non-governmental organizations and to
involve such organizations only in the sectors of national need and
priority, while making investment and role of such organizations
transparent and accountable

.
(k) Policies relating to justice and penal system:

(1) to make the administration of justice speedy, efficient, widely
available, economical, impartial, effective, and accountable to
people,

(2) to pursue alternative means such as mediation and arbitration for the
settlement of disputes of general nature,

(3) to adopt effective measures for the control of corruption and
irregularities in all sectors including political, administrative, judicial
and social sectors

(l) Policies relating to tourism: To develop eco-friendly tourism industries as
an important base of national economy by way of identification, protection,
promotion and publicity of the ancient, cultural, religious, archaeological
and natural heritages of Nepal, to make environment and policy required
for the development of tourism culture, and to accord priority to local
people in the distribution of benefits of tourism industries.
(m) Policies relating to international relations:

(1) to conduct an independent foreign policy based on the Charter of
the United Nations, non-alignment, principles of Panchsheel,
international law and the norms of world peace, taking into
consideration of the overall interest of the nation, while remaining
active in safeguarding the sovereignty, territorial integrity,
independence and national interest of Nepal,

(2) to review treaties concluded in the past, and make treaties,
agreements based on equality and mutual interest.

52. Obligations of the State: It shall be the obligation of the State to make Nepal a
prosperous and affluent country by protecting and promoting fundamental rights
and human rights, pursuing directive principles of the State and gradually
implementing policies of the State, while keeping intact the freedom, sovereignty,
territorial integrity and independence of Nepal.

53. To submit report:

The Government of Nepal shall submit an annual report
containing the steps taken and achievements made in the implementation of the
directive principles, policies and obligations of the State set forth in this Part to the
President, and the President shall cause such report to be laid through the Prime
Minister before the Federal Parliament.

54. Provisions relating to monitoring:

There shall be a committee, in accordance
with law, in the Federal Parliament in order to monitor and evaluate whether the
directive principles, policies and obligations of the State set forth in this Part have
been implemented progressively or not.
55. Questions not to be raised in court:

No question shall be raised in any court as to
whether any matter contained in this Part has been implemented or not.

Part-5 Structure of State and Distribution of State Power

Structure of State and Distribution of State Power

56. Structure of State:

(1) The main structure of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Nepal shall be of three levels, namely the Federation, the State and the Local level.

(2) The Federation, State and Local levels shall exercise the power of
State of Nepal pursuant to this Constitution and law.

(3) There shall be States consisting of the Districts as mentioned in
Schedule-4 existing in Nepal at the time of commencement of this Constitution.

(4) There shall be Village Institutions, Municipalities and District
Assemblies under the Local level. The number of Wards in a Village Institution
and Municipality shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

(5) Any Special, Protected or Autonomous Region can be set by the
Federal law for social, cultural protection or economic development

(6) The Federation, State and Local levels shall protect Nepal’s freedom,
sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, national interest, overall
development, multi-party, competitive, democratic, republican, federal system of
governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of
powers and check and balance, egalitarian society based on pluralism and equality,
inclusive representation and identity.

57. Distribution of State power:

(1) The powers of the Federation shall be vested in
the matters enumerated in Schedule-5, and such powers shall be exercised
pursuant to this Constitution and the Federal law.

(2) The powers of a State shall be vested in the matters enumerated in
Schedule-6, and such powers shall be exercised pursuant to this Constitution and
the State law.

(3) The concurrent powers of the Federation and the State shall be
vested in the matters enumerated in Schedule-7, and such powers shall be
exercised pursuant to this Constitution, the Federal law and the State law.

(4) The powers of the Local level shall be vested in the matters
enumerated in Schedule-8, and such powers shall be exercised pursuant to this
Constitution and the law made by the Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly.

(5) The concurrent powers of the Federation, State and Local levels
shall be vested in the matters enumerated in Schedule-9, and such powers shall be
exercised pursuant to this Constitution, the Federal law, the State law and the law
made by the Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly.

(6) Any law to be made by the State Assembly, Village Assembly or
Municipal Assembly pursuant to clause (3) or (5) shall be so made as not to be
inconsistent with the Federal law, and any law made by the State Assembly,
Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly which is inconsistent with the Federal
law shall be invalid to the extent of such inconsistency.

(7) Any law to be made by the Village Assembly or Municipal
Assembly pursuant to clause (5) shall be so made as not to be inconsistent with the
State law, and any law made by the Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly
which is inconsistent with the State law shall be invalid to the extent of such
inconsistency.

58. Residual powers: The Federation shall have power on any matter not enumerated
in the Federal List, State List, List of Local level or Concurrent List or on any
matter which is not so specified in this Constitution as to be exercised by any
level.

59. Exercise of financial powers:

(1) The Federation, State and Local level shall
make laws, make annual budget, decisions, formulate and implement policies and
plans on any matters related to financial powers within their respective
jurisdictions.

(2) The Federation may so make necessary policies, standards and laws
on any of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List and other areas of
financial powers as to be applicable also to the States.

(3) The Federation, State and Local level shall make budget of their
respective levels, and the time for submission of budget by the State and Local
level shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

(4) The Federation, State and Local level shall provide for the equitable
distribution of benefits derived from the use of natural resources or development.
Certain portions of such benefits shall be distributed, pursuant to law, in forms of
royalty, services or goods to the project affected regions and local communities.

(5) If, in utilising natural resources, the local community desires to
make investment therein, the Federation, State and Local level shall accord
priority to such investment in such portion as provided bylaw on the basis of the
nature and size of such investment.

(6) The Government of Nepal shall have power to obtain foreign
assistance and borrow loans. Such assistance or loans shall be so obtained or
borrowed as to have macro-economic stability of the country.

(7) Provisions relating to the management of budget deficits and other
fiscal discipline of the Federation, State and Local level shall be as provided for in
the Federal law.

60. Distribution of sources of revenue:

(1) The Federation, State and Local level
may impose taxes on matters falling within their respective jurisdiction and collect
revenue from these sources.
Provided that provisions relating to the imposition of taxes and collection
of revenue on matters that fall within the Concurrent List and on matters that are
not included in the List of any level shall be as determined by the Government of
Nepal.

(2) The Government of Nepal shall make provisions for the equitable
distribution of the collected revenue to the Federation, State and Local level.

(3) The amount of fiscal transfer receivable by the State and Local level
shall be as recommended by the National Natural Resources and Fiscal
Commission.

(4) The Government of Nepal shall, on the basis of the need of
expenditure and revenue capacity, distribute fiscal equalization grants to the State
and Local level.

(5) Each State shall, in accordance with the State law, distribute fiscal
equalization grants out of the grants received from the Government of Nepal and
revenues collected from its sources, on the basis of the need of expenditure and
revenue capacity of its subordinate Local level.

(6) Provisions relating to distribution of conditional grants,
complementary grants or special grants for other purposes to be provided by the
Government of Nepal from the Federal Consolidated Fund shall be as provided for
in the Federal law.

(7) Distribution of revenues between the Federal, State and Local level
shall be made in a balanced and transparent manner.

(8) A Federal Act on the distribution of revenues shall be made having
regard to the national policies, national requirements, autonomy of the State and
Local levels, services to be rendered by the State and the Local level to the people
and financial powers granted to them, capacity to collect revenues, potentiality and
use of revenues, assistance to be made in development works, reduction of
regional imbalances, poverty and inequality, end of deprivation, and assistance to
be made in the performance of contingent works and fulfilment of temporary
needs.

Part-6 President and Vice-President

President and Vice-President

61. President:

(1) There shall be a President of Nepal.

(2) The President shall be the head of state of Nepal. He or she shall
perform his or her functions in accordance with this Constitution and theFederal
law.

(3) The President shall promote the national unity of Nepal.

(4) The main duty of the President shall be to abide by and protect this
Constitution.

62. Election of President:

(1) The President shall be elected by an electoral college
composed of the members of the Federal Parliament and of the State Assemblies.
The voting weight age of the members of the Federal Parliament and of the State
Assemblies shall vary as provided for in the Federal law.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), nothing shall be
deemed to bar the formation of an electoral college for the purpose of election to
the President by the sole reason that election to the State Assembly has not been
held in any State.

(3) A person who secures a majority of the then existing total votes of
the electoral college under clause (1) shall be elected as the President.

(4) If none of the candidates secures a majority under clause (3), there
shall be voting between the two candidates who have secured the highest number
of votes, and a candidate who secures more than fifty percent of the total votes in
such a voting shall be elected as the President.

(5) If none of the candidates secures more than fifty percent of the total
votes even in the voting under clause (4), re-voting shall be held. A candidate who
secures a majority of the total valid votes cast in such voting shall be elected as the
President.

(6) If a person who holds a political office to be filled by way of
election, nomination or appointment is appointed as the President under this
Article, his or her such office shall ipso facto be vacant.

(7) Election to the President and other matters related thereto shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

63. Term of office of President:

(1) The term of office of the President shall be five
years from the date on which he or she is so elected.

(2) The President whose term of office under clause (1) has expired
shall continue to discharge the functions under this Constitution until another
elected President assumes his or her office.

64. Qualification for President:

(1) A person who has the following qualification
shall be qualified to become the President:
(a) being qualified to become a member of the Federal Parliament,
(b) having completed the age of at least forty five years, and
(c) not being disqualified by any law.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), a person who has
already been elected twice as the President shall not become a candidate in the
election to the President.

65. Vacation of office of President:

The office of the President shall become vacant
in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Vice-President,
(b) if a motion of impeachment against him or her is passed under
Article 101,
(c) if his or her term of office expires,
(d) If he or she dies.

66. Functions, duties and powers of President:

(1) The President shall exercise such
powers and perform such duties as conferred to him or her pursuant tothis
Constitution or a Federal law.

(2) In exercising the powers or duties under clause (1), the President
shall perform all other functions to be performed by him or her on
recommendation and with the consent of the Council of Ministers than those
functions specifically provided to be performed on recommendation of any body
or official under this Constitution or Federal Law. Such recommendation and
consent shall be submitted through the Prime Minister.

(3) Any decision or order to be issued in the name of the President under
clause (2) and other instrument of authorization pertaining thereto shall be
authenticated as provided for in the Federal law.

67. Vice-President:

(1) There shall be a Vice-president of Nepal.

(2) The functions to be performed by the President shall be performed
by the Vice-president during the absence of the President.

(3) If a person who holds a political office to be filled by way of
election, nomination or appointment is appointed as the Vice-president, his or her
such office shall ipso facto be vacant.

68. Vacation of office of Vice-president:

The office of the Vice-president shall
become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if a motion of impeachment against him or her is passed under
Article 101,

(c) if his or her term of office expires,

(d) if he or she dies.

69. Other provisions relating to Vice-President:

Provisions relating to the
qualification, procedures of election and term of office of the Vice-President shall
be the same as that of the President.

70. President and Vice-President to be from different sex or community: Election
to the President and the Vice-president under this Constitution shall be so made as
to have representation of different sex or community.

71. Oath by President and Vice-President: Prior to assuming their respective
offices, the President shall take an oath of office and secrecy before the Chief
Justice, and the Vice-President, before the President, as provided for in the Federal
law.

72. Remuneration and facilities of President and Vice-President: The remuneration
and other facilities of the President and the Vice-president shall be as provided for
in the Federal Act, and as specified by the Government of Nepal until such Act is
made.

73. Office of President and Vice-President: (1) There shall be separate offices for
the performance of the functions of the President and the Vice-President.

(2) The Government of Nepal shall make arrangements for employees
and other provisions as required to perform the functions of the offices under
clause (1)

Part-7 Federal Executive

Federal Executive

74. Form of government:

The form of government of Nepal shall be multi-party,
competitive, federal, democratic, republican, parliamentary form of government
based on pluralism
.

5. Executive power:

(1) The executive power of Nepal shall, pursuant to this
Constitution and law, be vested in the Council of Ministers.


(2) The responsibility for issuing general directives, controlling and
regulating the governance of Nepal shall, subject to this Constitution and law, lie
in the Council of Ministers.

(3) All Federal executive functions of Nepal shall be performed in the
name of the Government of Nepal.


(4) Any decision or order to be issued in the name of the Government of
Nepal pursuant to clause (3) and other instruments of authorization pertaining
thereto shall be authenticated as provided for in the Federal law.


76. Constitution of Council of Ministers:

1) The President shall appoint the leader
of a parliamentary party that commands majority in the House of Representatives
as the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers shall be constituted under his
or her chairpersonship.


(2) In cases where no party has a clear majority in the House of
Representatives under clause (1), the President shall appoint as the Prime Minister
a member of the House of Representatives who can command majority with the
support of two or more parties representing to the House of Representatives.


(3) In cases where Prime Minister cannot be appointed under clause (2)
no later than thirty days after the date of declaration of the final results of election
to the House of Representatives or the Prime Minister so appointed fails to secure
a vote of confidence under clause (4), the President shall appoint as the Prime


Minister the parliamentary party leader of the party which has the highest number
of members in the House of Representatives.


(4) The Prime Minister appointed under clause (2) or (3) shall obtain a
vote of confidence from the House of Representatives no later than thirty days
after the date of such appointment.


(5) In cases where the Prime Minister appointed under clause (3) fails to
obtain a vote of confidence under clause (4) and any member under clause (2)
presents a ground on which he or she can obtain a vote of confidence in the House
of Representatives, the President shall appoint such member as the Prime Minister.


(6) The Prime Minister appointed under clause (5) must obtain a vote of
confidence under clause (4).


(7) In cases where the Prime Minister appointed under clause (5) fails to
obtain a vote of confidence or the Prime Minister cannot be appointed, the
President shall, on recommendation of the Prime Minister, dissolve the House of
Representatives and appoint a date of election so that the election to another
House of Representatives is completed within six months.


(8) Procedures on the appointment of the Prime Minister under this
Article must be completed no later than thirty five days after the date of
declaration of the final results of election to the House of Representatives held
under this Constitution or the date on which the office of the Prime Minister has
fallen vacant.


(9) The President shall, on recommendation of the Prime Minister,
constitute the Council of Ministers comprising a maximum of twenty five
Ministers including the Prime Minister, in accordance with the inclusive principle,
from amongst the members of the Federal Parliament.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “Minister” means a Deputy Prime
Minister, Minister, Minister of State and Assistant Minister.

(10) The Prime Minister and Ministers shall be collectively responsible to
the Federal Parliament, and the Ministers shall be individually responsible for the

work of their respective Ministries to the Prime Minister and the Federal
Parliament.


77. Vacation of office of Prime Minister and Minister:

(1) The office of the Prime
Minister shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,
(b) if a vote of confidence is not passed or a vote of no-confidence is
passed against him or her under Article 100,
(c) if he or she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives,
(d) if he or she dies.


(2) The office of a Minister shall be vacant in any of the following
circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Prime Minister,
(b) if the Prime Minister removes him or her from office,
(c) if the office of Prime Minister falls vacant under sub-clause (a), (b)
or (c) of clause (1),
(d) if he or she dies.

(3) If the office of Prime Minister falls vacant under clause (1), the same
Council of Ministers shall continue to act until another Council of Ministers is
constituted.Provided that if the Prime Minister dies, the senior-most Minister shall act
as the Prime Minister until a new Prime Minister is appointed.

78. Non-member of Federal Parliamentto be Minister:

(1) Notwithstanding
anything contained in clause (9) of Article 76, the President may, on
recommendation of the Prime Minister, appoint a person who is not a member of
the Federal Parliament as a Minister


(2) A Minister appointed under clause (1) must obtain membership of
the Federal Parliament within six months from the date of taking oath by him or
her.


(3) In the event of failure to obtain membership of the Federal
Parliament within the period mentioned in clause (2), he or she shall not be
qualified to be reappointed to the office of Minister during the term of the then
House of Representatives.


(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), a person who has
been defeated in the election to the then House of Representatives shall not be
qualified to be appointed to the office of Minister as mentioned in clause (1)
during the term of such House of Representatives.

79. Remuneration and other facilities of Prime Minister and Ministers: The
remuneration and other facilities of the Prime Minister and Ministers shall be as
provided for in the Federal Act, and shall be as specified by the Government of
Nepal until such Act is made.


80. Oath: The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Ministers shall take an oath
of office and secrecy before the President, and Ministers of State and Assistant
Ministers, before the Prime Minister, as provided for in the Federal law, prior to
assuming their respective offices.


81. To inform President: The Prime Minister shall inform the President about the
following matters:
(a) resolutions of the Council of Ministers,
(b) Bills to be introduced in the Federal Parliament,
(c) such other necessary information as commanded by the President on
matters set forth in clauses (a) and (b), and

(d) current general state of affairs of the country and matters concerning
foreign relations.

 

82. Transaction of business of Government of Nepal:

(1) The business of the
Government of Nepal shall be allocated and transacted in accordance with the
rules approved by the Government of Nepal.


(2) No question may be raised in any court as to whether or not the rules
under clause (1) have been observed
 .

Part-8 Federal Legislature

Federal Legislature

83. Federal Legislature:

There shall be a Federal Legislature consisting of two
Houses to be known as the House of Representatives and the National Assembly,
which shall be called as the Federal Parliament.

84. Composition of House of Representatives:

(1) The House of Representatives
shall consist of a total of two hundred and seventy five members, as follows:

(a) One hundred and sixty five members to be elected through the first
past the post electoral system, with one being elected from each
election constituency of one hundred and sixty five election
constituencies delimited in the country on the basis of geography
and population,

(b) One hundred and ten members to be elected through the proportional
electoral system where voters vote for political parties, with the
whole country being considered as a single election constituency.

(2) The Federal law shall provide that, in fielding candidacy by political
parties for the election to the House of Representatives under the proportional
electoral system, representation shall be ensured on the basis of a closed list also
from women, Dalit, indigenous peoples, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslims and
backward regions, on the basis of population. In so fielding candidacy, regard
shall also be had to geography and territorial balance.
Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, “Khas Arya” means Kshetri,
Brahmin, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashnami) community.

(3) In fielding candidacy under clause (2), political parties shall provide
for representation of the persons with disabilities as well.

(4) Election to the House of Representatives under clause (1) shall be
held through secret ballots in accordance with law.

(5) Each citizen of Nepal who has completed the age of eighteen years
shall have the right to vote in any one election constituency as provided for in the
Federal law.

(6) A person who is qualified under Article 87 and entitled to vote in an
election to the members of the House of Representatives may, subject to the
Federal law, be a candidate in any election constituency.
Provided that a person shall not be a candidate in more than one election
constituencies at the same time.

(7) If the seat of any member of the House of Representatives falls
vacant while its term still remains for more than six months, the vacancy shall be
filled in the same manner of electoral system as in which such seat was filled in.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part, at least
one third of the total number of members elected from each political party
representing in the Federal Parliament must be women. If women are not so
elected as to constitute one third of the elected members of any political party
under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) and sub-clause (a) of clause (2) of Article 86,
such political party must, in electing members under sub-clause (b) of clause (1),
so elect that women members constitute at least one third of the total number of
members elected to the Federal Parliament from that party.

(9) Election to the House of Representatives and other matters
pertaining thereto shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

85. Term of House of Representatives:

(1) Unless dissolved earlier pursuant to this
Constitution, the term of the House of Representatives shall be five years.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the term of the
House of Representatives may be extended by a Federal Act for a period not
exceeding one year in cases where a proclamation or order of a state of emergency
is in effect.

(3) The term of the House of Representatives extended under clause (2)
shall ipso facto expire upon the expiry of six months from the date of voidance of
the proclamation or order of the state of emergency.

86. Composition of National Assembly and term of office of its members: (1) The
National Assembly shall be a permanent House.

(2) The National Assembly shall consist of fifty nine members as
follows:
(a) fifty six elected members consisting of at least three women, one
Dalit and one from persons with disabilities or minorities, from each
State by an electoral college composed of members of the State
Assembly, chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of the Village Bodies,
and Mayors and Deputy-Mayors of the Municipalities, with different
weight age of vote by members of the State Assembly, chairpersons
and vice-chairpersons of the Village Bodies, and Mayors and
Deputy-Mayors of the Municipalities, as provided for inthe Federal
law,
(b) Three members consisting of at least one woman nominated by the
President on recommendation of the Government of Nepal.

(3) The term of office of the members of the National Assembly shall be
six years. The term of office of one third of the members of the National Assembly
shall expire in every two years.
Provided that, for the first time, after the commencement of this
Constitution, arrangements shall be made by drawing lots to retire one-third of the
members on the expiry of two years, another one-third on the expiry of four years,
and the final one-third on the expiry of six years.
(4) In computing the term of office of the members of the National
Assembly for the first time after the commencement of this Constitution, the term

of office of all members shall be deemed to have commenced on the day on which
the first session of the National Assembly is held.

(5) Any vacancy of seat in the National Assembly shall be filled for the
remainder of the term of office in the same manner of election or nomination as in
which the seat of the vacating member was filled.

(6) Other matters relating to election to the members of the National
Assembly shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

87. Qualification for member :(1) A person who has the following qualification shall
be qualified to become a member of the Federal Parliament:
(a) being a citizen of Nepal,
(b) having completed the age of twenty five years, for the House of
Representatives, and the age of thirty five years, for the National
Assembly,
(c) not having been convicted of a criminal offense involving moral
turpitude,
(d) not being disqualified by any Federal law, and
(e) not holding any office of profit.
Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, “office of profit” means any position,
other than a political position which is to be filled by election or nomination, for
which a remuneration or economic benefit is paid out of a government fund.
(2) No person may be a member of both Houses at the same time.
(3) If a person who holds a political office to be filled by way of
election, nomination or appointment is elected or nominated as a member of the
Federal Parliament under this Part, his or her such office shall ipso facto be vacant
from the day on which he or she takes an oath of office of member of the Federal
Parliament.

88. Oath: Every member of each House of the Federal Parliament must, before taking
part for the first time in the session of the House or any of its committees, take an
oath as provided for in the Federal law.

89. Vacation of seat: The seat of a member of the Federal Parliament shall become
vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing before the Speaker or
Chairperson,
(b) if he or she is no longer qualified or ceases to possess the
qualification under Article 87,
(c) if the term of the House of Representatives or the term of office of
the member of the National Assembly expires,
(d) if he or she absents himself or herself from ten consecutive
meetings, without giving notice to the concerned House,
(e) if the political party of which he or she was a member when elected
provides a notification in accordance with the Federal law that he or
she has defected from the party,
(f) if he or she dies.

90. Decision as to disqualification of member: If a question arises as to whether any
member of the Federal Parliament is disqualified or has become disqualified under
Article 87, the Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court shall finally decide that
question.

91. Speaker and Deputy Speaker of House of Representatives:

(1) The members of
the House of Representatives shall, not later than fifteen days of the date of
holding of the first meeting of the House of Representatives, elect a Speaker and a
Deputy Speaker from amongst themselves.

(2) Election under clause (1) shall be so held that there is one woman
out of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker, and the Speaker and the Deputy
Speaker of the House of Representatives shall be representatives from different
parties.
Provided that if there is no representation of more than one party in the
House of Representatives or no candidacy is filed by more than one party in spite
of representation, nothing shall prevent the members of the same party from being
the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(3) If the office of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker falls vacant,the
members of the House of Representatives shall fill the vacancy by electing the
Speaker or Deputy Speaker from amongst themselves.

(4) The Deputy Speaker shall, in the absence of the Speaker, chairthe
House of Representatives.

(5) If election to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker is not held or if
both the positions become vacant, the attending member who is by age the seniormost
shall chair the meeting of the House of Representatives.

(6) The office of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker of the House of
Representatives shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives,
Provided that, in the event of dissolution of the House of
Representatives, the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House
of Representatives holding their respective offices shall continue in
office until the previous day of the filing of nominations for another
election to the House of Representatives,

(b) if he or she tenders resignation in writing,

(c) if a resolution is passed by a majority of two-thirds of the total
number of the then members of the House of Representatives that his
or her conduct is not compatible with his or her office.

(7) The Vice-Chairperson of the National Assembly shall chair a
meeting at which deliberations are to be held on a resolution that the conduct of
the Chairperson of the National Assembly is not compatible with his or her office.
The Chairperson of the National Assembly may take part and vote in the
deliberations on such resolution.

93. Summoning and prorogation of session: (1) The President shall summon a
session of the Federal Parliament within thirty days of the declaration of final
results of the election to the House of Representatives. Thereafter, the President
shall, from time to time, summon sessions of both or either of the Houses pursuant
to this Constitution.
Provided that the interval between the two consecutive sessions shall not
exceed six months.
(2) The President may prorogue the sessions of both or either of the
Houses of the Federal Parliament.
(3) If, during the prorogation or recess of the session of the House of
Representatives, one-fourth of the total number of its members write a petition that
it is desirable to convene a session or meeting, the President shall specify the date
and time for such session or meeting. The House of Representatives shall meet or
commence its session at the date and time so specified.
94. Quorum: Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, no question or
resolution shall be presented for decision in a meeting of either House of the
Federal Parliament unless one-fourth of the total number of its members are
present.
95. Address by President:

(1) The President may address either a meeting of any
House or a joint sitting of both Houses of the Federal Parliament, and summon the
members for that purpose.

(2) The President shall address the first session after election to the
House of Representatives and a joint sitting of both Houses of the Federal
Parliament after the commencement of the first session of each year.

96. Deputy Prime Minister, Minister, Minister of State and Assistant Minister
entitled to take part in both Houses: The Deputy Prime Minister, Minister,
Minister of State and Assistant Minister shall be entitled to attend and take part in
the proceedings and deliberations of either House of the Federal Parliament or its
committees.
Provided that he or she shall not be entitled to vote in a House or its
committee of which he or she is not a member.

97. Formation of committees:

(1) The House of Representatives and the National
Assembly may form committees as provided for in the Federal law.
(2) If a resolution is passed by either House demanding that a joint
committee of both the Houses be formed for the purpose of managing the working
procedures between the two Houses of the Federal Parliament, resolving
disagreement on any Bill or for any other specified function, the joint committee
shall be formed. The joint committee shall consist of a maximum of twenty five
members in the ratio of five members from the House of Representatives to one
member from the National Assembly on the basis of inclusion.

98. Transaction of business in case of vacancy in seat of member: Either House of
the Federal Parliament shall have the power to transact its business
notwithstanding any vacancy in the seat of its member. No proceedings of either
House of the Federal Parliament shall become invalid even if it is subsequently
discovered that a person who was not so entitled took part in such proceedings. 99. Voting: Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, any motions submitted
for decision in either House of the Federal Parliament shall be decided by a
majority vote of the members present and voting. The member chairing the
meeting shall not have the right to vote.
Provided that he or she may cast vote in the case of a tie.

100. Provisions relating to vote of confidence and motion of no-confidence: (1) The
Prime Minister may, whenever he or she considers necessary or appropriate to
show that he or she has confidence from the House of Representatives, table a
motion to that effect in the House of Representatives for the vote of confidence.
(2) If the political party which the Prime Minister represents is divided
or a political party in coalition government withdraws its support, the Prime
Minister shall table a motion in the House of Representatives for a vote of
confidence within thirty days.
(3) If a motion tabled under clauses (1) and (2) is not passed by a
majority of the total number of the then members of the House of Representatives,
the Prime Minister shall relieve of his or her office.
(4) One-fourth of the total number of the then members of the House of
Representatives may table a motion of no-confidence in writing that the House has
no confidence in the Prime Minister.
Provided that a motion of no confidence shall not be tabled until the first
two years after the appointment of the Prime Minister and until another one year
after the date of failure of the motion of no confidence once tabled.

(5) A motion of no confidence to be tabled under clause (4) shall also
indicate the name of a member proposed for the Prime Minister.
(6) If a motion of no confidence tabled under clause (4) is passed by a
majority of the total number of the then members of the House of Representatives,
the Prime Minister shall relieve of his or her office.

(7) If the office of Prime Minister falls vacant because of the passage of
a motion of no confidence under clause (6), the President shall, in accordance with
Article 76, appoint as the Prime Minister the member of the House of
Representatives proposed under clause (5).
101. Impeachment:

(1) One fourth of the total number of the then members of the
House of Representatives may move a motion of impeachment against the
President or Vice-President on the ground of serious violation of this Constitution
and the Federal law. If the motion is passed by at least two thirds majority of the
total number of the then members of both Houses of the Federal Parliament, he or
she shall relive of his or her office.

(2) One fourth of the total number of the then members of the House of
Representatives may move a motion of impeachment against the Chief Justice of
Nepal or a Judge of the Supreme Court, member of the Judicial Council, chief or
official of a Constitutional Body on the ground of his or her failure to fulfil his or
her duties of office because of serious violation of this Constitution and law,
incompetence or misconduct or failure to discharge the duties of office honestly or
serious violation of the code of conduct. If the motion is passed by at least two
thirds majority of the total number of the then members of the House of
Representatives, the concerned person shall relieve of his or her office.

(3) There shall be an impeachment recommendation committee in the
House of Representatives for the purpose of making recommendation after
inquiring into whether there exist the ground and reason for moving a motion of
impeachment against any person under clause (2).
(4) The committee under clause (3) shall consist of eleven members of
the House of Representatives.
(5) If at least three members of the House of Representatives certify and
submit a petition that the received information, notice or petition is admissible on
the ground of serious violation of the Constitution or incompetence or misconduct
or failure to discharge the duties of office honestly or serious violation of the code
of conduct by the person relieving of office on impeachment under clause (2), and
the committee under clause (3), upon inquiring into such petition in accordance
with Federal law, makes recommendation to the House of Representatives for
impeachment proceedings, a motion of impeachment under clause (2) may be
moved.

(6) After the commencement of impeachment proceedings under clause
(2), the Chief Justice of Nepal or Judge of the Supreme Court, member of the
Judicial Council, chief or official of the Constitutional Body shall not be allowed
to discharge the duties of his or her office pending the settlement of such
proceedings.

(7) A person who is charged with impeachment under clause (1) or (2)
shall be provided with a reasonable opportunity to defend himself or herself.
(8) Nothing shall bar the taking of action under the Federal law in
relation to the offence, if any, committed while in office by the President or VicePresident,
Chief Justice of Nepal or a Judge of the Supreme Court of Nepal,
member of the Judicial Council, chief or official of a Constitutional Body who is
relieved of office upon the passage of a motion of impeachment under this Article.

(9) A person who is relieved of office on the passage of a motion of
impeachment under clause (1) or (2) shall not be entitled to obtain any facility
accruing from such office and to be appointed or nominated to any public office
in the future.

(10) Other matters relating to impeachment shall be as provided for in the
Federal law.

102. Penalty for unauthorized presence or voting: If a person who has not taken oath
under Article 88 or who is not a member of the Federal Parliament is present or
votes in the capacity of member in a meeting of either House of the Federal
Parliament or of its committee, the person shall, by order of the person chairingthe meeting, be fined with a sum of five thousand rupees for each instance of such presence or voting, and such fine shall be recovered as a government due.
103. Privileges:

(1) There shall be full freedom of speech in both Houses of the Federal
Parliament; and no member shall be arrested, detained or prosecuted in any court
for anything expressed or any vote cast by him or her in the House.

(2) Each House of the Federal Parliament shall, subject to this
Constitution, have full power to regulate and decide its internal business, and the
concerned House shall have the exclusive right to decide whether or not any of its
proceedings is regular or irregular. No question shall be raised in any court in this
behalf.

(3) No comment shall be made about the good faith concerning any
proceeding of any House of the Federal Parliament, and no publication and
broadcasting of any kind shall be made about anything said by any member,
intentionally distorting or misinterpreting the meaning of the speech.

(4) The provisions of clauses (1) and (3) shall also apply to other
persons who are entitled to participate in the meetings of the House than the
members of the Federal Parliament.

(5) No proceedings shall be initiated in any court against any person in
respect of the publication, under the authority granted by any House of the Federal
Parliament, of any document, report, vote or proceeding.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause and clauses (1), (2), (3) and (4),
“House” means the House of Representatives or the National Assembly, and
includes a joint sitting or committee or joint committee of the Federal Parliament.

(6) No member of the Federal Parliament shall be arrested during the
period from the issuance of a notice summoning the session to its prorogation.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to bar the arresting
under the Federal law of any member on a criminal charge. If any member is so

arrested, the authority making such arrest shall forthwith give information thereof
to the person presiding over the concerned House.

(7) Any breach of the privileges shall be deemed to constitute contempt
of the Federal Parliament, and the concerned House shall have the exclusive right
to decide whether any privilege has been breached.

(8) If any person is in contempt of any House, the person presiding over
the concerned House may, after a decision by the House to that effect, admonish,
warn or impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months
or of a fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees on such person, andsuch fine shall
be recovered as a government due.
Provided that if such person apologies to the satisfaction of the concerned
House, it may pardon, remit or commute the sentence imposed on, him or her.
(9) Other matters relating to the privileges of the Federal Parliament
shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
104. Procedures relating to conduct of business: (1) Each House of the Federal
Parliament shall frame rules to conduct its business, maintain order during its
meetings and regulate the constitution, functions and procedures of the committees
and procedures of the House or its committee. Until such rules are framed, the
Federal Parliament shall regulate its procedures on its own.
(2) The conduct of business of the joint sitting of the Federal
Parliament, and constitution and proceedings of the joint committee of the Federal
Parliament shall be regulated by the rules or procedures approved by the joint
sitting of both Houses of the Federal Parliament.

105. Restriction on discussion: No discussion shall be held in either House of the
Federal Parliament on any matters that may cause adverse effect on the
dispensation of justice on any cases which are sub judice in any courts of Nepaland on any judicial acts done by Judges in the course of performance of theirduties.
Provided that nothing in this Article shall be deemed to bar the expression
of opinions about the conduct of a Judge during deliberations held on a motion of
impeachment.

106. Secretary General and Secretary of Federal Parliament:

(1) The President
shall appoint the Secretary General of the House of Representatives on
recommendation of both the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the
Chairperson of the National Assembly, the Secretary of the House of
Representatives on recommendation of the Speaker, and the Secretary of the
National Assembly on recommendation of the Chairperson.

(2) The qualification, functions, duties, powers and other conditions of
service of the Secretary General of the Federal Parliament, Secretary of the House
of Representatives and Secretary of the National Assembly shall be as provided
for in the Federal law.

107. Secretariat of Federal Parliament: There shall be a Secretariat for conducting
and managing the business of the Federal Parliament. The establishment of such
Secretariat and other matters related thereto shall be as provided for in the Federal
law.

108. Remuneration: The remuneration and facilities of the Speaker and the Deputy
Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chairperson and the ViceChairperson
of the National Assembly, chairpersons of the committees andmembers of the Federal Parliament shall be as provided for in the Federal law, and as specified by the Government of Nepal until such law is made

Part-9 Federal Legislative Procedures

Federal Legislative Procedures

109. Legislative powers of Federal Parliament: The legislative powers of the Federal
Parliament shall be as enumerated in the lists of Schedule-5, Schedule-7 and
Schedule-9.
110. Procedures for introduction of Bills:

(1) A Bill may, subject to this Constitution,
be introduced in any House of the Federal Parliament.
Provided that a Money Bill shall be introduced only in the House of
Representatives.

(2) A Money Bill and a Bill concerning a security body including the
Nepal Army, Nepal Police and Armed Police Force, Nepal shall be introduced only
as a Government Bill.

(3) “Money Bill” means a Bill concerning any or all of the following
subjects:

(a) the imposition, collection, abolition, remission, alteration or
regulation of taxes,

(b) the preservation of the Federal Consolidated Fund or any
other Federal Government Fund, the deposit of moneys into
and the appropriation or the withdrawal of moneys from such
Funds, or the reduction, increment or cancellation of
appropriations or of proposed expenditures from such Funds,

(c) the regulation of matters relating to the borrowing of money
or the giving of guarantee by the Government of Nepal, or
any matter pertaining to the amendment of the law with
respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be
undertaken by the Government of Nepal,

(d) the custody and investment of all revenues received by any
Federal Government Fund, moneys acquired through the
repayment of loans, and grant moneys, or accounts or audits
of the accounts of the Government of Nepal, or
(e) Other matters directly related to any of the subjects specified
in clause (a), (b), (c)or (d).
Provided that any Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by the
reason only that it provides for the levying of any charges and fees such as
license fee, application fee, renewal fee or for the imposition of fines or
penalty of imprisonment.

(4) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the
decision of the Speaker thereon shall be final.

111. Procedures for passage of Bills:

(1) A Bill passed by one House of the Federal
Parliament shall be transmitted to the other House as soon as possible and such
Bill, if passed by the receiving House, shall be presented to the President for
assent.

(2) A Money Bill passed by the House of Representatives shall be
transmitted to the National Assembly. The National Assembly shall, after
deliberations on such Bill, send back the Bill to the House of Representatives
within fifteen days from the date of receipt of the Bill, with suggestions, if any.

(3) The House of Representatives shall, upon deliberations on a Bill
returned with suggestions under clause (2), present the Bill incorporating such
suggestions as it may deem appropriate to the President for assent.

(4) If the National Assembly does not return a Money Bill received
under clause (2) for more than fifteen days, the House of Representatives may
present the Bill to the President for assent.

(5) Any Bill, except for a Money Bill, passed by the House of
Representatives and transmitted to the National Assembly shall be returned with
approval or suggestions within two months from the date of receipt. If the National
Assembly does not return the Bill within that period, the House of Representatives
may, by a resolution passed by a majority of the total number of its existing
members, present the Bill to the President for assent.

(6) If any Bill, other than a Money Bill, passed by one House is rejected
or is passed with amendments by the other House, the Bill shall be returned to the
House where it originated.

(7) If the House of Representatives, in considering a Bill which has been
rejected or amended and returned by the National Assembly under clause (6),
passes it again as it was or with amendments, by a majority of the total number of
its existing members, the Bill shall be presented to the President for assent.

(8) If a Bill which has been returned with amendments by the House of
Representatives to the National Assembly under clause (6) is also again passed,
with such amendments, by a majority of the number of existing members ofthe
National Assembly, the Bill shall be presented to the President for assent.

(9) The following Bills shall be referred to a joint sitting of the both
Houses, and if the joint sitting passes the Bill as it was or with amendments, the
House in which the Bill originated shall present it to the President for assent:

(a) Bills which, though passed by the National Assembly, have
been rejected by the House of Representatives, or

(b) Bills which have been returned to the National Assembly with
amendments by the House of Representatives, but the
National Assembly has not agreed on such amendments.

(10) Even though the session of a House is prorogued while a Bill is
under its consideration, deliberations on the Bill may continue at the succeeding
session.Provided that if the House of Representatives is dissolved or its term
expires when any Bill introduced in the House of Representatives is under its
consideration or when any Bill passed by the House of Representatives is under
consideration in the National Assembly, such Bill shall lapse.

112. Withdrawal of Bills: One who has introduced a Bill may, with the approval of the
House, withdraw the Bill.

113. Assent on Bills:

(1) A Bill which is to be submitted to the President for assent
under Article 111 shall be so submitted by the Speaker or the Chairperson of the
House in which the Bill originated after it has been certified by him or her.
Provided that in the case of a Money Bill, the Speaker shall so certify.

(2) A Bill submitted to the President for his or her assent in accordance
with this Article shall be assented to within fifteen days, both Houses shall be
informed thereof as soon as possible.

(3) If the President is of the opinion that any Bill, except a Money Bill,
submitted for assent needs reconsideration, he or she may, within fifty days from
the date of presentation of such Bill, return the Bill with his or her message to the
House in which the Bill originated.

(4) If any Bill is returned with a message by the President, and both
Houses reconsider, passes such Bill as it was or with amendments and submit it
again, the President shall give assent to that Bill within fifteen days of such
submission.

(5) A Bill shall become an Act after the President gives assent to it.
114. Provisions relating to Ordinance:

(1) If, at any time, except when both Houses
of the Federal Parliament are in session, circumstances exist which render it
necessary to take immediate action, the President may, on recommendation of the
Council of Ministers, promulgate an Ordinance.

(2) An Ordinance promulgated under clause (1) shall have the same
force and effect as an Act.
Provided that every such Ordinance:

(a) shall be tabled at the session of both Houses of the Federal
Parliament held after the promulgation, and if not passed by
both Houses, it shall ipso facto cease to be effective,

(b) may be repealed at any time by the President, and

(c) shall, unless rendered ineffective or repealed under sub-clause

(a) or (b), ipso facto cease to be effective at the expiration of
sixty days after the day on which a meeting of both Houses is
held.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, “day on which a meeting of
both Houses is held” means the day on which a session or meeting of both
Houses of the Federal Parliament commences or is held, and this term
means the later day on which a meeting of the House is held if the Houses
of the Federal Parliament meet on different dates.

Part-10 Federal Financial Procedures

Federal Financial Procedures

115. No tax to be levied or loan to be raised:

(1) No tax shall be levied and collected
except in accordance with law.
(2) No loan shall be raised and guarantee given by the Government of
Nepal except as provided for in the Federal law.

116. Federal Consolidated Fund: Except for the revenues of trusts (Guthi), all
revenues received by the Government of Nepal, all loans raised on the security of
revenues, all amounts received in repayment of any loans made under the
authority of any Act and any other moneys received by the Government of Nepal
shall, except as otherwise provided by a Federal Act, be credited to a Government
Fund to be known as the Federal Consolidated Fund.

117. Expenditures from Federal Consolidated Fund or Federal Government Fund:
No expenditure shall be incurred out of the Federal Consolidated Fund or any
other Federal Government Fund except the following:

(a) moneys charged on the Federal Consolidated Fund,

(b) moneys required to meet the expenditure under a Federal
Appropriation Act,

(c) advance moneys authorized by a Federal Act required to meet
expenditures, when an Appropriation Bill is under consideration, or

(d) expenditures to be incurred in extraordinary circumstances under a
Federal Vote of Credit Act which contains only a description of
expenditures.Provided that matters relating to the Federal Contingency Fund shall be
governed by Article 124.

118. Expenditures chargeable on Federal Consolidated Fund: The expenditures
relating to the following matters shall be charged on the Federal Consolidated
Fund, and approval of the Federal Parliament shall not be required for such
expenditures:

(a) the amount required as remuneration and facilities of the President
and the Vice-president,

(b) the amount required as remuneration and facilities payable to the
Chief Justice of Nepal, Judges of the Supreme Court, and members
of the Judicial Council,

(c) the amount required as remuneration and facilities payable to the
Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives,
and the Chairperson and the Vice Chairperson of the National
Assembly,

(d) the amount required as remuneration and facilities payable to the
chiefs and officials of the Constitutional Bodies,

(e) the amount required as remuneration and facilities of the Chiefs of
States,

(f) the administrative expenses of the Office of the President or the Vice
President, the Supreme Court, the Judicial Council, the
Constitutional Bodies, and the offices of Chiefs of States,

(g) all charges relating to debts for which the Government of Nepal is
liable,

(h) any sum required to satisfy any judgment or decree made by a court
against the Government of Nepal, and

(i) any other sum to be chargeable by the Federal law on the Federal
Consolidated Fund.

119. Estimates of revenues and expenditures:

(1) The Minister for Finance of the
Government of Nepal shall, in respect of every financial year, lay before the joint

sitting of both Houses of the Federal Parliament an annual estimate setting out,
inter alia, the following matters:

(a) an estimate of revenues,

(b) the moneys required to meet the charges on the Federal Consolidated
Fund, and

(c) the moneys required to meet the expenditure to be provided for by a
Federal Appropriation Act.

(2) The annual estimate to be laid pursuant to clause (1) shall also be
accompanied by a statement of the expenses allocated to every Ministry in the
previous financial year and particulars of whether the objectives of the expenses
have been achieved.

(3) The Minister for Finance of the Government of Nepal shall lay
before the Federal Parliament an estimate of revenues and expenditures under
clause (1) on the 15th day of Jesta (mid May) each year.

120. Appropriation Act: The moneys to be spent under an Appropriation Act shall be
specified under concerned heads in an Appropriation Bill.
121. Supplementary estimates:

(1) The Minister for Finance of the Government of
Nepal may lay before the House of Representatives a supplementary estimate if it
is found in any financial year,-

(a) that the sum authorized to be spent for a particular service by the
Appropriation Act for the current financial year is insufficient, or
that a need has arisen for expenditures on some new service not
provided for by the Appropriation Act for that year, or

(b) that the expenditures made during that financial year are in excess of
the amount authorized by the Appropriation Act.

(2) The sums included in the supplementary estimate shall be specified
under the related heads in a Supplementary Appropriation Bill.

122. Votes on account:

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part,
a portion of the expenditure estimated for the financial year may, when an
Appropriation Bill is under consideration, be incurred in advance,as provided for
in the Federal Act.

(2) A Vote on Account Bill shall not be introduced until the estimates of
revenues and expenditures have been laid in accordance with Article 119, and the
sums involved in the Vote on Account shall not exceed one-third of the estimate of
expenditures for the financial year.

(3) The expenditures incurred in accordance with the Federal Vote on
Account Act shall be included in the Appropriation Bill.

123. Votes of credit: Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part, if
owing to an emergency due to either natural causes or a threat of external
aggression or internal disturbances or other reasons, it appears to be impractical or
inexpedient in view of the security or interest of the country to specify the details
required under Article 119, the Minister for Finance of the Government of Nepal
may lay before the House of Representatives a Vote of Credit Bill giving only a
statement of expenditures.

124. Federal contingency fund:

(1) A Federal Act may create a fund to be known as
the contingency fund into which such moneys as may be determined by the
Federal Act shall be paid from time to time.

(2) The Government of Nepal shall control the fund under clause (1),
and may meet any unforeseen expenditure out of such fund.

(3) The amount of the expenditure under clause (2) shall be reimbursed
as soon as possible as provided for in the Federal Act

125. Act relating to financial procedures: Matters relating to the transfer of moneys
appropriated by the Federal Act from one head to another and other financial
procedures shall be as provided for in the Federal Act.

Part-11 Judiciary

Judiciary
126. Courts to exercise powers relating to justice:

(1) Powers relating to justice in
Nepal shall be exercised by courts and other judicial bodies in accordance with
this Constitution, other laws and the recognized principles of justice.

(2) All shall abide by the orders or decisions made in the course of trial
of lawsuits by the courts.

127. Courts:

(1) There shall be the following courts in Nepal:
(a) Supreme Court,
(b) High Court, and
(c) District Court.

(2) In addition to the courts under clause (1), judicial bodies may be
formed at the Local level to try cases under law or other bodies as required may be
formed to pursue alternative dispute settlement methods.

128. Supreme Court:

(1) There shall be a Supreme Court in Nepal.

(2) The Supreme Court shall be a court of record. All courts and judicial
bodies shall, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, be under the
Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have the final authority to interpret this
Constitution and laws.

(3) The Supreme Court may inspect, supervise and give necessary
directives to, it and courts, specialized courts or other judicial bodies under its
jurisdiction, in relation to matters relating to judicial administration or
management.

(4) All must abide by any interpretation of the Constitution or a law
made by or any legal principle laid down by the Supreme Court in the course of
trying a lawsuit. If anyone makes obstruction in the dispensation of justice by, or
disregard any order or judgment handed down by, it or any of its subordinate courts, the Supreme Court may, in accordance with law, initiate proceedings and
impose punishment for contempt.

129. Appointment and qualification of Chief Justice of Nepal and Judges of
Supreme Court:

(1) The Supreme Court shall consist of a maximum of twenty
Judges, in addition to the Chief Justice of Nepal.

(2) The President shall appoint the Chief Justice, on recommendation of
the Constitutional Council, and other Judges of the Supreme Court, on
recommendation of the Judicial Council.

(3) Any person who has served as a Judge of the Supreme Court for at
least three years shall be qualified for appointment as the Chief Justice.

(4) The term of office of the Chief Justice shall be six years.

(5) Any citizen of Nepal who has obtained a bachelor’s degree in law
and served as the Chief Judge or a Judge of a High Court for at least five years or
who has obtained a bachelor’s degree in law and constantly practiced law as a
senior advocate or advocate for at least fifteen years or who is a distinguished
jurist having constantly worked for at least fifteen years in the judicial or legal
field or who has served in the post of Gazetted first class or a higher post of the
Judicial Service for at least twelve years shall be deemed qualified for
appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court.

 

Explanation: The period during which one has served as the Chief Judge or Judge
of an Appellate Court prior to the commencement of this Constitution shall, for the
purposes of this clause, be deemed to be the period of service in the capacity of the
Chief Judge or Judge of the High Court.

(6) If the office of the Chief Justice falls vacant or the Chief Justice is
unable to carry out the duties of his or her office by reason of illness or otherwise
or he or she cannot be present in the Supreme Court by reason of a leave of absence or his or her being outside of Nepal, the senior-most Judge of the Supreme
Court shall act as the Acting Chief Justice.

130. Conditions of service and facilities of Chief Justice and Judges:

(1) If the ChiefJustice or a Judge of the Supreme Court who has served for at least five years
resigns or undergoes compulsory retirement or dies, he or she shall be entitled to
such pension as may be provided for in the Federal law.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the remuneration
and other conditions of service of the Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme
Court shall be provided for in the Federal law.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in clauses (1) and (2), the Chief
Justice or a Judge of the Supreme Court who has been removed from office by
way of impeachment or who has been punished by a court for a criminal offence
involving moral turpitude shall not be entitled to gratuity or pension.
(4) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief
Justice or a Judge of the Supreme Court shall not be altered to his or her
disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.
131. Vacation of office of Chief Justice or Judge of Supreme Court: The office of
the Chief Justice or a Judge of the Supreme Court shall be vacant in any of the
following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing before the President,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,
(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,
(d) if the President removes from office the Chief Justice, on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council, and the Judge of the
Supreme Court, on recommendation of the Judicial Council, on the
ground that he or she is unable to discharge his or her duties because
of physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she is punished by a court for a criminal offence involving
moral turpitude,
(f) if he or she dies.
132. Chief Justice and Judges of Supreme Court not to be engaged in any other
office: (1) No Chief Justice or Judge of the Supreme Court shall be engaged in or
deputed to any office other than that of Judge.
Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in consultation with the
Judicial Council, depute a Judge of the Supreme Court to work concerning judicial
inquiry, or to legal or judicial investigation or research for a specified period.
(2) No person who has once held the office of Chief Justice or a Judge
of the Supreme Court shall be eligible for appointment to any government office,
except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.
133. Jurisdiction of Supreme Court: (1) Any citizen of Nepal may file a petition in
the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the
ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an unreasonable
restriction on the enjoyment of any fundamental right conferred by this
Constitution or on any other ground, or to have any law or any part thereof made
by a State Assembly declared void because it is inconsistent with any law made by
the Federal Parliament or to have any law or any part thereof made by a Municipal
Assembly or Village Assembly declared void because it is inconsistent with a law
made by the Federal Parliament or the State Assembly, and the Supreme Court
shall have an extra-ordinary power to declare that law to be void either ab initio or
from the date of its decision if the law appears to be so inconsistent.

(2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental
rights conferred by this Constitution or of any other legal right for which no other
remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears
to be inadequate or ineffective or for the settlement of any constitutional or legal
question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the
extraordinary power to issue necessary and appropriate orders, provide appropriate
remedies, enforce such right or settle such dispute.

(3) Under the extra-ordinary jurisdiction under clause (2), the Supreme
Court may issue appropriate orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus,
mandamus, certiorari, prohibition and quo warranto.
Provided that except on the ground of lack of jurisdiction, the Supreme
Court shall not under this clause interfere with any internal proceedings of the
Federal Parliament or State Assembly, and with any proceedings instituted by the
Federal Parliament or State Assembly concerning violation of its privileges and
penalties imposed there for.

(4) Subject to this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, as provided in
a Federal law, have the power to originally try and settle cases, hear appeals, test
judgments referred for confirmation, revise cases, hear petitions or review its
judgments or final orders. Judges other than those having handed down the
previous judgment shall make such review.
(5) The Supreme Court shall settle appeals from cases originally tried
and settled by a High Court and matters of public importance involving questions
of interpretation of the Constitution and law or cases recommended by a High
Court, accompanied by its opinion that it is reasonable that decision be made by
the Supreme Court.

(6) Other powers and procedures of the Supreme Court shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

134. Power to transfer of cases: (1) If cases which involve substantially the same
questions are sub judice before the Supreme Court and a High Court, and the
Supreme Court is satisfied on its own or on application by the Attorney General or
parties to such cases that such questions are of public importance, the Supreme
Court shall have the power to procure and adjudge the cases together.
(2) If there exists a special situation where judicial impartiality can be
questioned if a case filed in a High Court is tried by that Court, the Supreme Court
may, for reasons and grounds to be recorded, order such case to be transferred
from such High Court to another High Court and tried by the latter High Court, in
accordance with law.

135. Not to be engaged in practice of law: No Chief Justice or Judge of the Supreme
Court may, after retirement from service, be engaged in the practice of law,
mediation or arbitration proceedings before any office or court.
136. Responsibility of Chief Justice: The Chief Justice shall have the ultimate
responsibility to make effective the administration of justice by the Supreme
Court, subordinate courts, specialized courts or other judicial bodies.
137. Formation of Constitutional Bench:

(1) There shall be a Constitutional Bench in
the Supreme Court. The Constitutional Bench shall consist of the Chief Justice and
other four Judges designated by the Chief Justice on recommendation of the
Judicial Council.
(2) The Bench under clause (1) shall originally try and settle the
following cases, in addition to the petitions filed in accordance with clause (1) of
Article 133:
(a) Disputes relating to jurisdiction between the Federation and a State,
between States, between a State and a Local level and between Local
levels,

(b) Disputes relating to election to members of the Federal Parliament or
State Assembly and matters relating to disqualification of a member
of the Federal Parliament or of the State Assembly.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 133, if it appears that
any case sub judice in the Supreme Court involves a question of serious
constitutional interpretation, the Chief Justice may appoint such case to be tried by
the Bench under clause (1).

(4) Other provisions relating to the functioning of the Constitutional
Bench shall be as determined by the Supreme Court.
138. Annual report: (1) The Supreme Court, Judicial Council and Judicial Service
Commission shall, every year, submit annual reports to the President, and the
President shall submit such reports to the Federal Parliament through the Prime
Minister.
(2) If the Federal Parliament, upon deliberating on the annual reports
submitted under clause (1), deems it necessary to give any suggestion, it may give
such suggestion to the concerned body through the Government of Nepal, Ministry
of Law and Justice.

(3) Other provisions relating to annual reports under clause (1) shall be
as provided for in the Federal law.
139. High Courts: (1) There shall be a High Court in each State.
(2) If anyone makes obstruction in the dispensation of justice by, or
disregard any order or judgment handed down by, it or any of its subordinate
courts or judicial bodies, the High Court may initiate proceedings on and impose
punishment for contempt, as provided for in the Federal law.
(3) Each High Court shall consist of such number of Judges, in addition
to the Chief Judge, as provided for in the Federal law

140. Appointment and qualification of Chief Judge and Judges of High Court: (1)
The Chief Justice shall, on recommendation of the Judicial Council, appoint the
Chief Judge and Judges of the High Court.

(2) Any citizen of Nepal who has obtained a bachelor’s degree in law
and served as a Judge of a District Court for at least five years or who has obtained
a bachelor’s degree in law and constantly practiced law as a senior advocate or
advocate for at least ten years or who has constantly been engaged in the teaching
or research of law or in any other field relation to law or justice for at least ten
years or who has served in the post of at least Gazetted first class of the Judicial
Service for at least five years shall be deemed qualified for appointment as the
Chief Judge or a Judge of the High Court.

(3) Appointments to the Chief Judge and Judges of a High Court shall
be made from amongst the persons who have possessed the qualification under
clause (2) on the basis of the proportion of cases settled by him or her annually
and of evaluation of cases upheld, quashed or reversed by superior courts in the
course of final decision thereof, in the case of a District Judge, and of his or her
seniority, qualification and evaluation of standard of performance of business, in
the case of a person who has served in the post of at least Gazetted first class of
the Judicial Service, and of evaluation of seniority, professional continuity,
honesty, professional conduct and contribution made to the field of law and
justice, in the case of others.

(4) If the office of the Chief Judge falls vacant or the Chief Judge is
otherwise unable to carry out the duties of his or her office or cannot be present in
the High Court by reason of a leave of absence or his or her being outside of the
State, the senior-most Judge of the High Court shall act as the Acting Chief Judge.
141. Conditions of service and facilities of Chief Judge and Judges: (1) Except as
otherwise provided in this Constitution, the remuneration and other conditions of

service of the Chief Judge and Judges of the High Court shall be provided for in
the Federal law.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the Chief Judge or
a Judge of a High Court who has been removed from office upon action by the
Judicial Council or upon punishment by a court for a criminal offence involving
moral turpitude shall not be entitled to gratuity or pension.

Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where the Judicial
Council has removed him or her from office on the ground of inability to perform
the duties of his or her office because of physical or mental illness.
(3) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief Judge
or a Judge of the High Court shall not be altered to his or her disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.
142. Vacation of office of Chief Judge or Judge:

(1) The office of Chief Judge or
Judge of a High Court shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing before the Chief
Justice,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-three years,
(c) if he or she is removed from office by the Chief Justice on
recommendation of the Judicial Council, on the ground of his
or her incompetence, bad conduct, failure to perform his or
her duties honestly, performance of business with mala fide
intention or serious violation by him or her of the code of
conduct required to be observed by him or her,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the Chief Justice on
recommendation of the Judicial Council on the ground that he
or she is unable to discharge his or her duties because of
physical or mental illness,

(e) if he or she is punished by a court for a criminal offence
involving moral turpitude,
(f) if he or she dies.
(2) A Judge who is facing a charge shall be provided with a reasonable
opportunity to defend himself or herself prior to removing him or her from the
office under sub-clause (c) of clause (1). The Judge against whom the proceedings
have been so instituted shall not be allowed to perform the duties of his or her
office until the proceedings are completed.

(3) Nothing shall bar the institution of action in accordance with the
Federal law against the Chief Judge or Judge who has been removed from office
for an offence which he or she has committed while in office.
143. Chief Judge and Judges not to be engaged in any other office and provisions
relating to transfer : (1) No Chief Judge or Judge of a High Court shall be
engaged in or deputed to any office other than that of Judge

.
Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in consultation with the
Judicial Council, depute a Judge of the High Court to work concerning judicial
inquiry, or to legal or judicial investigation or research or to any business of
national concern for any specific period.

(2) The Chief Justice may, on recommendation of the Judicial Council,
transfer a Judge of a High Court to another High Court.
144. Jurisdiction of High Court: (1) The High Court shall have the power to issue
necessary and appropriate orders, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights
conferred by this Constitution or for the enforcement of any other legal right for
which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though
provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective or for the settlement of any legal
question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern,

(2) For the purposes of clause (1), the High Court may issue appropriate
orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, certiorari,
prohibition and quo warranto.

Provided that except on the ground of absence of jurisdiction, the High
Court shall not under this clause interfere with any internal proceedings of the
Federal Parliament or State Assembly, and with any proceedings instituted by the
Federal Parliament or State Assembly concerning violation of its privileges and
penalties imposed therefor.

(3) The High Court shall, in accordance with the Federal law, have the
power to originally try and settle cases; hear appeals and test judgments referred
for confirmation.
(4) Other powers and procedures of the High Court shall be as provided
by the Federal law.
145. Power to transfer cases:

(1) If a High Court is of the opinion that a case which
is sub judice in a subordinate court within its jurisdiction involves a question
relating to a State law and it is essential to settle that question in order to decide
the case, the High Court may procure the case and dispose the case wholly or
decide only such question and remand the case to the court of first instance.
(2) If it is satisfied with the reason that there exists a situation where
judicial impartiality can be questioned if a case filed in a District Court is tried by
that Court, the High Court may, for reasons and grounds to be recorded, order
such case to be transferred from such District Court to another District Court
under its jurisdiction and tried by the latter District Court, as provided for in the
Federal law.
146. To be engaged in practice of law: A person who has retired from the office of a
Judge of a High Court may be engaged in the practice of law before the Supreme

Court and a High Court, other than the High Court where he or she has served as a
Judge and a subordinate court.
147. Responsibility of Chief Judge:

The Chief Judge shall have the ultimate
responsibility to make effective the administration of justice by the High Court
and the Courts or other judicial bodies which are subordinate to it. For that
purpose, the Chief Judge may, subject to this Constitution and the Federal law,
give necessary direction to the subordinate Courts and judicial bodies.
148. District Courts: (1) There shall be a District Court in each District.
(2) The Local level judicial bodies established in accordance with the
State law shall be subordinate to the District Court. The District Court may inspect
as well as supervise and give necessary direction to its subordinate judicial bodies.
149. Appointment, qualification, remuneration and other conditions of service of
Judges of District Courts:

(1) The Chief Justice shall, on recommendation of the
Judicial Council, appoint Judges of the District Courts.
(2) The vacant posts of Judges of the District Court shall be filled as
follows:
(a) twenty percent of the vacant posts, on the basis of evaluation of
seniority, qualification and competency, from amongst the officers
who have obtained bachelor’s degree in law and served for at least
three years in the post of Gazetted Second Class of the Judicial
Service,
(b) forty percent of the vacant posts, on the basis of open competitive
examination, from amongst the officers who have obtained
bachelor’s degree in law and served for at least three years in the
post of Gazetted Second Class of the Judicial Service

(c) the remaining forty percent of the vacant posts, on the basis of open
competitive examination, from amongst the citizens of Nepal who,
having obtained bachelor’s degree in law, have constantly practiced
law for at least eight years as an advocate or who, having obtained
bachelor’s degree in law, have served in a Gazetted post of the
Judicial Service for at least eight years or have constantly been
engaged in the teaching or research of law or served in any other
field of law or justice for at least eight years.

(3) The Judicial Service Commission shall, in accordance with the
Federal law, hold written and oral competitive examinations for the persons who
have possessed the qualification under sub-clauses (b) and (c) of clause (2), and
make recommendation, in order of merit, to the Judicial Council for appointment
as District Judges.

(4) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Judges of
the District Court shall be provided for in the Federal law.
(5) The remuneration and other conditions of service of a Judge of the
District Court shall not be altered to his or her disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.
(6) The office of a Judge of the District Court shall be vacant in any of
the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing before the Chief
Justice,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-three years,
(c) if he or she is removed from office by the Chief Justice on
recommendation of the Judicial Council, on the ground of his
or her incompetence, misconduct, failure to perform his or her
duties honestly, performance of business with mala fide
intention or serious violation by him or her of the code of
conduct required to be observed by him or her,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the Chief Justice on
recommendation of the Judicial Council on the ground that he
or she is unable to continue service and discharge his or her
duties because of physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she is punished by a court for a criminal offence
involving moral turpitude,
(f) if he or she dies.
(7) A District Judge who is accused shall be given a reasonable
opportunity to defend himself or herself before removing him or her from office
under sub-clause (c) of clause (6).The District Judge against whom the
proceedings are so initiated shall not perform the duties of his or her office until
the proceedings are completed.

(8) Nothing shall prevent the instituting of action, in accordance with
the Federal law, against a District Judge who is removed from office for an
offence which he or she has committed while in office.
150. District Judges not to be engaged in any other office and provisions relating
to transfer : (1) No District Judge shall be engaged in or deputed to any office
other than that of Judge.

Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in consultation with the
Judicial Council, depute a District Judge to work concerning judicial inquiry, or to
legal or judicial investigation or research and to any election related work, for a
specified period.
(2) The Chief Justice may, on recommendation of the Judicial Council,
transfer a District Judge from one District Court to another District Court.

151. Jurisdiction of District Court: (1) Except as otherwise provided by the Federal
law, a District Court shall have the power to originally try and settle all cases
under its jurisdiction, to try petitions under law, including petitions of habeas
corpus and prohibition, hear appeals under law from decisions made by quasijudicial
bodies, hear appeals from decisions made by Local level judicial bodies
formed under the State law, institute contempt proceedings and punish for
contempt under the Federal law if anyone makes obstruction in the dispensation of
justice by, or disregards any order or judgment by, it or any of its subordinate
courts.
(2) Other provisions relating to the jurisdiction and procedures of the
District Courts shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
152. Specialized courts:

(1) Other specialized courts, judicial bodies or tribunals may
be formed to try and settle specific types and nature of cases other than those
mentioned in Article 127, as provided for in the Federal law.
Provided that no specialized court, judicial body or tribunal shall be formed
for any specific case.
(2) No criminal offence involving imprisonment for a term of more than
one year shall fall under the jurisdiction of a body other than a court, specialized
court, military court or judicial body.
153. Judicial Council:

(1) There shall be a Judicial Council to make
recommendation or give advice, in accordance with this Constitution, on the
appointment of, transfer of, disciplinary action against, and dismissal of, Judges,
and other matters relating to the administration of justice, which shall consist of
the following as its chairperson and members:
(a) The Chief Justice – Chairperson
(b) The Federal Minister for Law and Justice – Member

(c) The senior-most Judge of the Supreme
Court
– Member
(d) One jurist nominated by the President on
recommendation of the Prime Minister – Member
(e) A senior advocate or advocate who has
gained at least twenty years of experience,
to be appointed by the President on
recommendation of the Nepal Bar
Association
– Member
(2) The term of office of the members under sub-clauses (d) and (e) of
clause (1) shall be four years, and their remuneration and facilities shall be
equivalent to those of a Judge of the Supreme Court.
(3) The members under sub-clauses (d) and (e) of clause (1) shall be
removed from office in the same manner and on the same grounds as a Judge of
the Supreme Court.
(4) The chairperson and a member of the Judicial Council may study the
case associated with a complaint filed in respect of any Judge, and make a report
thereof to the Judicial Council.
(5) If a preliminary inquiry of a complaint filed in respect of any Judge
reveals a need to have a detailed inquiry by an expert, the Judicial Council may
form an inquiry committee.
(6) If a Judge, other than a Judge who can be removed from office by
way of impeachment in accordance with this Constitution, commits an abuse of
authority by way of corruption, the Judicial Council may investigate into the
matter and institute a case in accordance with law.
(7) The Judicial Council must prepare updated records of the persons
who are qualified for appointment to offices of the Chief Justice, Judges of the
Supreme Court, Chief Judges and Judges of the High Courts.

(8) Other functions, duties and powers of the Judicial Council shall be
as provided for in the Federal law.
154. Judicial Service Commission:(1) In appointing, transferring or promoting
gazetted officers of the Federal Judicial Service or taking departmental action
concerning such officers in accordance with law, the Government of Nepal shall
act on recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.
Provided that in making new permanent appointments to gazetted posts of
the Federal Judicial Service from persons who are not already in the Federal
Government Service or making promotions from non-gazetted posts of the Federal
Judicial Service to gazetted ones of that Service, the Government of Nepal shall
act on the recommendation of the Public Service Commission.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, the Public Service
Commission shall hold open and internal competitive examinations to be held for
appointments to Gazetted posts of the Federal Judicial Service.
(2) The Judicial Service Commission shall consist of the following as its
chairperson and members:
(a) The Chief Justice – Chairperson
(b) The Federal Minister for Law and
Justice
– Member
(c) The senior most Judge of the
Supreme Court
– Member
(d) The Chairperson of the Public
Service Commission
– Member
(e) The Attorney General – Member
(3) Other functions, duties, powers and procedures of the Judicial
Service Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

155. Provisions relating to conditions of service and facilities: Provisions relating to
the remuneration, facilities and conditions of service of the employees of the
Federal Judicial Service shall be as provided for in the Federal Act.
156. Provisions relating to State Judicial Service Commission: Provisions relating to
the formation of a State Judicial Service Commission and the remuneration,
facilities and conditions of service of the employees of a State  Judicial Service
shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

Part- 12 Attorney General

Attorney General
157. Attorney General:

(1) There shall be an Attorney General of Nepal.

(2) The President shall, on recommendation of the Prime Minister,
appoint the Attorney General.

The Attorney General shall hold office during the
pleasure of the Prime Minister.

(3) A person who is qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme
Court shall be eligible to be appointed as the Attorney General.

(4) The office of the Attorney General shall be vacant in any of the
following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President through
the Prime Minister,

(b) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Prime Minister,

(c) if he or she dies.

(5) The remuneration and other facilities of the Attorney General shall
be similar to those of a Judge of the Supreme Court. Other conditions of service of
the Attorney General shall be in accordance with law.

158. Functions, duties and powers of Attorney General:

(1) The Attorney General
shall be the chief legal advisor to the Government of Nepal. It shall be the duty of
the Attorney General to give opinions and advices on constitutional and legal
matters to the Government of Nepal and such other authorities as the Government
of Nepal may specify.

(2) The Attorney General or government attorneys subordinate to him or
her shall represent the Government of Nepal in lawsuits wherein the rights,
interests or concerns of the Government of Nepal are involved. Except as provided
otherwise in this Constitution, the Attorney General shall have the right to make a
final decision as to whether to institute any case on behalf of the Government of
Nepal in any court, judicial body or authority.

(3) Opinion of the Attorney General must be obtained for withdrawing a
case filed on behalf of the Government of Nepal.

(4) The Attorney General may, upon invitation by the Federal
Parliament or any of its committees, to appear and express his or her opinion on
any legal question in such a meeting.

(5) In the course of discharging the duties of his or her office, the
Attorney General shall have the right to appear in any Court, office and authority
of Nepal.

(6) The Attorney General shall, in the course of performing his or her
duties, have the power to carry out the following acts, in addition to that set forth
in clause (2):

(a) to defend, on behalf of the Government of Nepal, any lawsuit in
which the Government of Nepal is a plaintiff or a defendant,

(b) to monitor, or cause to be monitored, whether any interpretation
given to a law or any legal principle laid down by the Supreme Court
in the course of hearing of lawsuits has been implemented,

(c) if a complaint is made alleging that any person held in custody has
not been treated humanely subject to this Constitution or such person
has not been allowed to meet his or her relative or through his or her
legal practitioner or if information of such matter is received, to
inquire there into and give necessary directive to the concerned
authority to prevent such act.

(7) The Attorney General may so delegate his or her functions, duties
and powers under this Article to his or her subordinate government attorneys as to
be exercised and complied with subject to the specified conditions.

(8) In addition to the functions, duties and powers mentioned in this
Article, other functions, duties and powers of the Attorney General shall be
pursuant to this Constitution and the Federal law.

159. Annual report:

(1) The Attorney General shall, every year, submit to the
President an annual report on the works which he or she has performed pursuant to
this Constitution and the Federal law, and the President shall cause such report to
be laid before the Federal Parliament through the Prime Minister.

(2) The annual report to be submitted pursuant to clause

(1) shall set out,
inter alia, the number of advices and opinions on constitutional and legal matters
rendered by him or her throughout the year, and short description of such advices
and opinions, details of cases instituted as state cases, details of defence made in
lawsuits in which the Government of Nepal is a plaintiff or defendant, details of
reforms to be made in the future in relation to cases to be instituted as state cases
and information relating to crime trends.

Chief Attorney:

(1) There shall be a Chief Attorney in every State, who shall be
subordinate to the Attorney General.

(2) The Chief of State shall, on recommendation of the concerned Chief
Minister, appoint the Chief Attorney. The Chief Attorney shall hold office during
the pleasure of the Chief Minister.

(3) A person who is qualified to be appointed as a Judge of High Court
shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chief Attorney.

(4) The office of the Chief Attorney shall be vacant in any of the
following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Chief of State
through the Chief Minister,

(b) if he or she is removed from office by the Chief of State on
recommendation of the Chief Minister,

(c) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chief Attorney shall be the chief legal advisor to the State
Government. It shall be the duty of the Chief Attorney to give opinions and
advices on constitutional and legal matters to the State Government and such other
authorities as the State Government may specify.

(6) The Office of Attorney General shall manage the employees under
the Office of Chief Attorney.

(7) The remuneration and other facilities of the Chief Attorney shall be
similar to those of a Judge of High Court. The functions, duties and powers and
other conditions of service of the Chief Attorney shall be as provided for in the
State law.

161. Provisions relating to conditions of service and facilities: Provisions relating to
the remuneration, facilities and conditions of service of the government attorneys
and other employees under the Attorney General shall be as provided for in the
Federal Act.

Part -13 State Executive

State Executive

162. Executive power of State:

(1) The executive power of a State shall, pursuant to
this Constitution and the State law, be vested in the State Council of Ministers.
Provided that if a State Executive does not exist because of enforcement of
Federal governance, the Chief of State shall exercise the executive power of the
State as directed by the Government of Nepal.

(2) The responsibility for issuing general directives, controlling and
regulating the governance of the State shall, subject to this Constitution and other
laws, lie in the State Council of Ministers.

(3) All State executive functions shall be performed in the name of the
State Government.

(4) The executive power of the State shall be as mentioned in Schedule6,
Schedule-7 and Schedule-9 subject to this Constitution.

Provided that the State Council of Ministers shall exercise the executive
powers in coordination with the Government of Nepal, except as explicitly
mentioned in this Constitution and in the Federal law in relation to concurrent
powers of the Federation and the State.

(5) Any decision or order to be issued in the name of the State
Government pursuant to clause

(3) and other instruments of authorization
pertaining thereto shall be authenticated as provided for in the State law.

163. Provisions relating to Chief of State:

(1) There shall be a Chief of State in each
State, as a representative of the Government of Nepal.

(2) The President shall appoint one Chief of State for each State.

(3) The term of office of a Chief of State shall be five years except
where the President removes him or her from office prior to the expiration of his
or her term of office.

(4) A person may not be the Chief of State for more than once in the
same State.

164. Qualification for Chief of State: A person who has the following qualification
shall be qualified to become the Chief of State:

(a) being qualified for being a member of the Federal Parliament,
(b) having completed the age of thirty five years, and
(c) Not being disqualified by any law.

165. Vacation of office of Chief of State:

(1) The office of the Chief of State shall
become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if his or her term of office expires and he or she is removed from
office by the President prior to expiration of the term,

(c) if he or she dies.

(2) If the office of the Chief of State of any State falls vacant, the
President may so designate the Chief of State of another State to act as such also
for such State.

166. Functions, duties and powers of Chief of State:

(1) The Chief of State shall
exercise such powers and perform such duties as conferred to him or her pursuant
to this Constitution or law.

(2) In exercising the powers or duties under clause

(1), the Chief of
State shall perform all other functions to be performed by him or her on
recommendation and with the consent of the State Council of Ministers than those
functions specifically provided to be performed on recommendation of any body
or official pursuant to this Constitution or law. Such recommendation and consent
shall be submitted through the Chief Minister.

(3) Any decision or order to be issued in the name of the Chief of State
under clause (2) and other instrument of authorization pertaining thereto shall be
authenticated as provided for in the State law.

167. Oath by Chief of State: The Chief of State shall, prior to assuming office, take an
oath of office and secrecy before the President, as provided for in the Federal law.
168. Constitution of State Council of Ministers:

(1) The Chief of State shall appoint
the leader of the parliamentary party commanding a majority in the State
Assembly as the Chief Minister, and the State Council of Ministers shall be
constituted under his or her chairpersonship.

(2) In cases where no party has a clear majority in the State Assembly
under clause (1), the Chief of State shall appoint as the Chief Minister a member
of the State Assembly who can command majority with the support of two or more
parties representing to the State Assembly.

(3) In cases where the Chief Minister cannot be appointed under clause
(2) no later than thirty days after the date of declaration of the final results of
election to the State Assembly or the Chief Minister so appointed fails to secure a
vote of confidence under clause (4), the Chief of State shall appoint as the Chief
Minister the parliamentary party leader of the party which has the highest number
of members in the State Assembly.

(4) The Chief Minister appointed under clause (2) or (3) shall obtain a
vote of confidence from the State Assembly no later than thirty days after the date
of such appointment.

(5) In cases where the Chief Minister appointed under clause (3) fails to
obtain a vote of confidence under clause (4) and any member under clause (2)
presents a ground on which he or she can obtain a vote of confidence in the State
Assembly, the Chief of State shall appoint such a member as the Chief Minister.

(6) The Chief Minister appointed under clause (5) must obtain a vote of
confidence under clause (4).

(7) In cases where the Chief Minister appointed under clause (5) fails to
obtain a vote of confidence or the Chief Minister cannot be appointed, the Chief of
State shall, on recommendation of the Chief Minister, dissolve the State Assembly
and appoint a date of election so that the election to another State Assembly is
completed within six months.

(8) Procedures on the appointment of the Chief Minister under this
Article must be completed no later than thirty five days after the date of
declaration of the final results of election to the State Assembly held under this
Constitution or the date on which the office of the Chief Minister has fallen
vacant.

(9) The Chief of State shall, on recommendation of the Chief Minister,
constitute the State Council of Ministers consisting of a maximum of twenty
percent of the total number of members of the State Assembly, including the Chief
Minister, in accordance with the inclusive principle, from amongst the members of
the State Assembly.

Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “Minister” means a Minister,
Minister of State and Assistant Minister.

(10) The Chief Minister and Ministers shall be collectively responsible to
State Assembly, and the Ministers shall be individually responsible for the work of
their respective Ministries to the Chief Minister and the State Assembly.

169. Vacation of office of Chief Minister and Minister:

(1) The office of the Chief
Minister shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Chief of State,
(b) if a vote of no-confidence is passed against him or her under Article
188 or a vote of confidence is not passed,
(c) if he or she ceases to be a member of the State Assembly

(d) if he or she dies.

(2) The office of a Minister shall be vacant in any of the following
circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Chief Minister,
(b) if the Chief Minister removes him or her from office,
(c) if the office of the Chief Minister falls vacant under sub-clause (a),
(b) or (c) of clause (1),
(d) if he or she dies.

(3) Even though the office of the Chief Minister falls vacant under
clause (1), the same Council of Ministers shall continue to act until another State
Council of Ministers is constituted.
Provided that if the Chief Minister dies, the senior-most Minister shall act
as the Chief Minister until a new Chief Minister is appointed.

170. Appointment of non-member of State Assembly as Minister:

(1)
Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (9) of Article 168, the Chief of State
may, on the recommendation of the Chief Minister, appoint any person who is not
a member of the State Assembly as a Minister.

(2) A Minister appointed under clause (1) must obtain membership of
the State Assembly within six months from the date of taking an oath by him or
her.

(3) In the event of failure to obtain membership of the State Assembly
within the period mentioned in clause (2), he or she shall not be eligible to be
reappointed to the office of Minister during the term of the then State Assembly.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), a person who has
been defeated in the election to the then State Assembly shall be not eligible to be
appointed to the office of Minister under clause (1) during the term of such State
Assembly.

171. Remuneration and other Facilities of Chief Minister and Minister: The
remuneration and other facilities of the Chief Minister and Ministers shall be as
provided by a State Act, and until such Act is made, shall be as specified by the
State Government.

172. Oath: The Chief Minister and Ministers shall, before assuming their respective
offices, take an oath of office and secrecy before the Chief of State, and Ministers
of State and Assistant Ministers, before the Chief Minister, as provided for in the
State law.

173. To give information to Chief of State: The Chief Minister shall inform the Chief
of State about the following matters:

(a) resolutions of the State Council of Ministers,
(b) Bills to be introduced in the State Assembly,
(c) such other necessary information as commanded by the Chief of
State on matters set forth in clauses (a) and (b), and
(d) current general state of affairs of the State.

174.Transaction of business of State Government:

(1) The allocation and
transaction of business of the State Government shall be carried out in accordance
with the rules approved by the State Government.
(2) No question shall be raised in any court as to whether or not the
rules under clause (1) have been observed.

Part-14 State Legislature

State Legislature
175. State Legislature:

The legislature of a State shall be unicameral, which shall be
called as the State Assembly.

176. Composition of State Assembly:

(1) Each State Assembly shall consist of a
number of members, as follows:

(a) Members in a number that is twice as many as the number of
members elected to the House of Representatives from the
concerned State, through the first past the post electoral system,

(b) The number of members to be set under clause (a) shall be
considered to be sixty percent, and the rest forty percent members to
be elected, through the proportional electoral system.

(2) Election constituencies shall be set on the basis of geography and
population as provided for in the Federal law, for the election to members under
sub-clause (a) of clause (1).

(3) Sixty percent members of the State Assembly shall be elected in
accordance with the first past the post electoral system and the forty percent
members in accordance with the proportional electoral system.

(4) Election to the members of the State Assembly under clause (3) shall
be held through adult suffrage by secret ballots in accordance with law.

(5) Each citizen of Nepal who resides within the territory of the State
and who has completed the age of eighteen years shall have a right to vote in any
one election constituency in accordance with law.

(6) The Federal law shall provide that, in fielding candidacy by political
parties for the election to the State Assembly under the proportional electoral
system, representation shall be ensured on the basis of a closed list also from
women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu,
Muslims and backward regions, minority communities, on the basis of population.

In so fielding candidacy, regard shall also be had to geographical balance of the
concerned State.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, “Khas Arya” means Kshetri,
Brahmin, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashnami) community.

(7) In fielding candidacy under clause (6), political parties must provide
for representation of the persons with disabilities as well.

(8) If the seat of a member of the State Assembly falls vacant while its
term still remains for more than six months, the vacancy shall be filled through the
same electoral system as through which such seat was filled in.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at
least one third of the total number of members elected from each political party
representing in the State Assembly must be women. If women are not so elected as
to constitute one third of the elected members of any political party under subclause
(a) of clause (1), such political party must, in electing members under subclause
(b) of that clause, so elect that women members constitute at least one third
of the total number of members elected to the State Assembly from that party.

(10) A person who is qualified under Article 178 and entitled to vote in
an election to the members of the State Assembly may, subject to law, be a
candidate in any election constituency of the State.
Provided that a person shall not be a candidate in more than one election
constituencies at the same time.

(11) Other provisions relating to election to the State Assembly shall be
as provided for in the Federal law.

177. Term of State Assembly:

(1) Unless dissolved earlier pursuant to this
Constitution, the term of the State Assembly shall be five years.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), the term of the
State Assembly may be extended by a State Act for a period not exceeding one
year in cases where a proclamation or order of a state of emergency is in effect.

(3) The term of the State Assembly extended under clause (2) shall ipso
facto be terminated after the expiry of six months from the date of voidance of the
proclamation or order of the state of emergency in the concerned State.

178. Qualification for member of State Assembly:

(1) A person who has the
following qualification shall be qualified to become a member of the State
Assembly:
(a) being a citizen of Nepal,

(b) being a voter of the concerned State,

(c) having completed the age of twenty five years,

(d) not having been convicted of a criminal offense involving moral
turpitude,

(e) not being disqualified by any law, and

(f) not holding any office of profit.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, “office of profit” means any
position, other than a political position which is to be filled by election or
nomination, for which a remuneration or economic benefit is paid out of a
government fund.

(2) If a person who holds a political office to be filled by way of
election, nomination or appointment is elected as a member of the State Assembly
under this Part, his or her such office shall ipso facto be vacant with effect from
the day on which he or she takes an oath of such office.

179. Oath of member of State Assembly: Every member of the State Assembly must,
before taking part for the first time in the meeting of the Assembly or any of its
committees, take an oath as provided for in the State law.

180. Vacation of seat of member of State Assembly: The seat of a member of the
State Assembly shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing before the Speaker of the
State Assembly,

(b) if he or she is no longer qualified or ceases to possess the
qualification under Article 178,

(c) if the term of the State Assembly expires or it is dissolved,

(d) if he or she absents himself or herself from ten consecutive
meetings, without giving notice to the State Assembly,

(e) if the political party of which he or she was a member when elected
provides a notification as provided for in the Federal law that he or
she has defected from the party,

(f) If he or she dies.

181. Decision as to disqualification of member: If a question arises as to whether any
member of the State Assembly is disqualified or has ceased to possess any of the
qualifications under Article 178, the Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court
shall make the final decision of such question.

182. Speaker and Deputy Speaker of State Assembly:

(1) The members of the State
Assembly shall, not later than fifteen days of the date of holding of the first
meeting of the State Assembly, elect a State Speaker and a Deputy State Speaker
from amongst themselves.

(2) Election under clause (1) shall be so held that there is one woman
out of the State Speaker and the Deputy State Speaker, and the State Speaker and
the Deputy State Speaker of the State Assembly shall be representatives from
different parties.Provided that if there is no representation of more than one party in the
State Assembly or no candidacy is filed by more than one party despite
representation, nothing shall prevent the members of the same party from being
the State Speaker and the Deputy State Speaker of the State Assembly.

(3) If the office of the State Speaker or the Deputy State Speaker falls
vacant, the members of the State Assembly shall fill the vacancy through election
to the State Speaker or the Deputy State Speaker from amongst themselves.

(4) The Deputy State Speaker shall, in the absence of the State Speaker
of the State Assembly, chair the State Assembly.

(5) If the election to the State Speaker and the Deputy State Speaker has
not taken place, or if both the positions have become vacant, the attending member
who is by age the senior-most shall chair the meeting of the State Assembly.

(6) The office of the State Speaker or the Deputy State Speaker of the
State Assembly shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she ceases to be a member of the State Assembly,

Provided that, in the event of the dissolution of the State Assembly,
the State Speaker and the Deputy State Speaker of the State Assembly
holding their respective offices shall continue in office until the previous
day of the filing of nominations for another election to the State Assembly,
(b) if he or she resigns in writing,

(c) if a resolution is passed by a majority of two-thirds of the total
number of the then members of the State Assembly to the effect that
his or her conduct is not compatible with his or her office.

(7) The State Deputy Speaker shall preside over a meeting at which
deliberations are to be held on a motion that the conduct of the Speaker of the
State Assembly is not compatible with his or her office. The State Speaker shall be
entitled to take part and vote in the deliberations on such motion.

183. Summoning and prorogation of session of State Assembly:

(1) The Chief of
State shall summon a session of the State Assembly within twenty days of the
declaration of final results of the election to the State Assembly. Thereafter, the
Chief of State shall, from time to time, summon other sessions pursuant to this
Constitution.Provided that the interval between the two consecutive sessions shall not
exceed six months.

(2) The Chief of State may prorogue the sessions of the State Assembly.

(3) If, during the prorogation or recess of the session of the State
Assembly, one-fourth of the total number of its members make a petition that it is
expedient to convene a session or meeting, the Chief of State shall specify the date
and time for such session or meeting. The State Assembly shall meet or commence
its session at the date and time so specified.

184. Address by Chief of State:

(1) The Chief of State may address a sitting of the
State Assembly, and summon the members for that purpose.

(2) The Chief of State shall address the first session after an election to
the State Assembly and a sitting of the State Assembly after the commencement of
the first session of each year.

185. Quorum of State Assembly: Except as otherwise provided for in this
Constitution, no question or motion shall be presented for decision in the State
Assembly unless one-fourth of the total number of its members are present.

186. Voting in State Assembly: All questions submitted for decision in the State
Assembly shall be decided by a majority vote of the members present and
participate in voting. The member chairing the meeting shall not have the right to
vote.Provided that he or she may exercise his or her casting vote in the case of a
tie.

187. Privileges of State Assembly:

(1) There shall be full freedom of speech in the
State Assembly, subject to this Constitution, and no member shall be arrested,detained or prosecuted in any court for anything expressed or any vote cast by him
or her in the State Assembly.

(2) The State Assembly shall, subject to this Constitution, have full
power to regulate and decide its internal business, and it shall be the exclusive
right of the State Assembly to decide whether or not any of its proceedings is
regular or irregular. No question shall be raised in any court in this behalf.

(3) No comment shall be made about the good faith concerning any
proceeding of the State Assembly, and no publication and broadcasting of any
kind shall be made about anything said by any member, intentionally distorting or
misinterpreting the meaning of the speech.

(4) The provisions of clauses (1) and (3) shall also apply to other
persons who are entitled to participate in the meetings of the State Assembly than
the members of State Assembly.

(5) No proceedings shall be initiated in any court against any person in
respect of the publication, under the authority granted bythe State Assembly, of
any document, report, vote or proceeding.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause and clauses (1), (2), (3) and
(4), “State Assembly” means and includes the meeting of a committee of the State
Assembly.

(6) No member of the State Assembly may be arrested during the period
from the issuance of a notice summoning the session to its prorogation.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to prevent the arrest
under the law of any member on a criminal charge. If any member is so arrested,
the authority making such arrest shall forthwith give information thereof to the
person presiding over the State Assembly.

(7) Any breach of the privileges shall be deemed to constitute contempt
of the State Assembly, and the State Assembly shall have the exclusive right to
decide whether any breach of its privileges has taken place.

(8) If any person is in contempt of the State Assembly, the person
presiding over the State Assembly may, after a decision by the State Assembly to
that effect, admonish, warn or impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term not
exceeding three months or of a fine not exceeding ten thousand rupees on such
person, and such fine shall be recovered as a government due.
Provided that if such a person submits an apology to the satisfaction of the
State Assembly, it may either pardon him or her or remit or commute the sentence
imposed on him or her.

(9) Other matters relating to privileges of the State Assembly shall be as
provided in the State law.

188. Provisions relating to vote of confidence and motion of no-confidence:

(1) TheChief Minister may, whenever he or she considers necessary or appropriate to
show that he or she has confidence from the State Assembly, table a resolution to
that effect in the State Assembly for the vote of confidence.

(2) If the political party which the Chief Minister represents is divided
or a political party in coalition State Government withdraws its support, the Chief
Minister shall table a resolution in the State Assembly for a vote of confidence
within thirty days.

(3) If a resolution tabled under clauses (1) and (2) is not passed by a
majority of the total number of then members of the State Assembly, the Chief
Minister shall relieve of his or her office.

(4) One-fourth of the total number of then members of the State
Assembly may table in writing a motion of no-confidence against the Chief
Minister.Provided that a motion of no confidence may not be tabled until the first
two years after the appointment of the Chief Minister and until another one year
after the date of failure of the motion of no confidence once tabled.

(5) A motion of no confidence to be tabled under clause (4) shall also
indicate the name of a member proposed for Chief Minister.

(6) If a motion of no confidence tabled under clause (4) is passed by a
majority of the total number of then members of the State Assembly, the Chief
Minister shall relieve of his or her office.

(7) If the office of the Chief Minister falls vacant because of the passage
of a vote of no-confidence under clause (6), the Chief of State shall, in accordance
with Article 168, appoint as the Chief Minister the member of the State Assembly
proposed under clause (5).

189. Minister, Minister of State and Assistant Minister entitled to take part in
meetings of State Assembly: The Minister, Minister of State and Assistant
Minister shall be entitled to attend, and take part in the proceedings and
deliberations of, the State Assembly or its committees.
Provided that a Minister, Minister of State or Assistant Minister who is not
a member of the State Assembly shall not be entitled to vote in a meeting of the
State Assembly or its committee, and a Minister, Minister of State or Assistant
Minister shall not be entitled to vote in a meeting of a committee of which he or
she is not a member.

190. Penalty for unauthorized presence or voting in State Assembly: If a person
who has not taken oath under Article 179 or who is not a member of the State
Assembly is present or votes in a meeting of the State Assembly or of its
committee as a member, the person shall, by order of the person chairing the
meeting, be fined with a sum of five thousand rupees for each instance of such
presence or voting, and such a fine shall be recovered as a government due.
191. Restriction on discussion: No discussion shall be held in the State Assembly on
any matters that may cause adverse effect on the dispensation of justice on any
cases which are sub judice in any courts of Nepal and on any judicial acts done by
Judges in the course of performance of their duties.

192. Transaction of business in case of vacancy in seat of member: The State
Assembly shall have the power to transact its business notwithstanding any
vacancy in the seat of its member; and no proceedings of the State Assembly
already conducted shall become invalid even if it is subsequently discovered that a
person who was not so entitled took part in such proceedings.

193. Power of State Assembly to form committees: The State Assembly may, in
accordance with its rules, form committees or special committees, as required, in
order to manage its working procedures.

194. Procedures relating to conduct of business of State Assembly: The State Assembly
shall frame rules to conduct its business, maintain order during its meetings and
regulate the constitution, functions and procedures of, and other matters relating
to, its committees. Until such rules are framed, the State Assembly shall regulate
its procedures on its own.

195. Secretary and Secretariat of State Assembly:

(1) The Chief of State shall
appoint the Secretary of the State Assembly on recommendation of the Speaker of
State Assembly.

(2) There shall be a Secretariat for conducting and managing the
business of the State Assembly. The establishment of such Secretariat and other
matters related thereto shall be as provided for in the State law.

(3) The qualification, functions, duties, powers and other conditions of
service of the Secretary of the State Assembly shall be as provided for in the State
law.

196. Remuneration: The remuneration and facilities of the Speaker and the Deputy
Speaker of the State Assembly shall be as provided for in the State law, and as
specified by the State Government until such law is made.

Part-15 State Legislative Procedures

State Legislative Procedures
197. Legislative powers of State Assembly: The legislative powers of the State
Assembly shall be as contained in lists of Schedule-6, Schedule-7 and Schedule-9.
198. Procedures for introduction of Bills in State Assembly:

(1) A Bill may, subject
to this Constitution, be introduced in the State Assembly.
(2) A Money Bill and a Bill concerning peace and security may be
introduced only as a Government Bill.

(3) “Money Bill” means a Bill concerning any or all of the following
subjects:

(a) the imposition, collection, abolition, remission, alteration or
regulation of taxes in the State,

(b) the preservation of the State Consolidated Fund or any other
State Government Fund, the deposit of moneys into and the
appropriation or the withdrawal of moneys from such Funds,
or the reduction, increment or cancellation of appropriations
or of proposed expenditures from such Funds,

(c) the regulation of matters relating to the borrowing of money
or the giving of guarantee by the State Government, or any
matter pertaining to the amendment of the law with respect to
any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by
the State Government,

(d) the custody and investment of all revenues received by any
State Government Fund, moneys acquired through the
repayment of loans, and grant moneys; or audits of the
accounts of the State Government, or
(e) other incidental matters directly related to any of the subjects
specified in clause (a), (b), (c) or (d).

Provided that any Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by the reason
only that it provides for the levying of any charges or fees such as license fee,
application fee, renewal fee or for the imposition of fines or penalty of
imprisonment.

(4) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the
decision of the Speaker of State Assembly thereon shall be final.
199. Procedures for passage of Bills: (1) A Bill passed by the State Assembly shall be
presented to the Chief of State for assent.

(2) If a session of the State Assembly terminates while a Bill is under
consideration, deliberations on the Bill may continue at the succeeding session.
Provided that if the State Assembly is dissolved or its term expires when
any Bill is under its consideration, such a Bill shall lapse.

200. Withdrawal of Bills: A member who has introduced a Bill may, with the approval
of the State Assembly, withdraw the Bill.

201. Assent on Bills: (1) A Bill which is to be presented to the Chief of State for assent
under Article 199 shall be so presented by the Speaker of State Assembly after it
has been certified by him or her.

Provided that in the case of a Money Bill, the Speaker of State Assembly
shall so certify.

(2) A Bill presented to the Chief of State for his or her assent shall be
assented to within fifteen days, and the State Assembly shall be informed thereof
as soon as possible.

(3) Except for a Money Bill, if the Chief of State is of the opinion that
any Bill needs further deliberations, he or she may send back the Bill with his or
her message to the State Assembly within fifteen days from the date of
presentation of the Bill to him or her.

(4) If any Bill is sent back with his or her message by the Chief of State
under clause (3), it shall be reconsidered by the State Assembly and if the Bill so
reconsidered is again passed as it was or with amendments, and is again presented
to him or her, the Chief of State shall give assent to that Bill within fifteen days of
such presentation.

(5) A Bill shall become an Act after the Chief of State gives assent to it.
202. Ordinance: (1) If, at any time, except when the State Assembly is in session, a
circumstance exists which renders it necessary to take immediate action, the Chief
of State may, on the recommendation of the State Council of Ministers,
promulgate an Ordinance.

(2) An Ordinance promulgated under clause (1) shall have the same
force and effect as an Act

.
Provided that every such Ordinance:

(a) shall be tabled at the session of the State Assembly held after
the promulgation, and if not passed by the State Assembly, it
shall ipso facto cease to be effective,

(b) may be repealed at any time by the Chief of State, and
(c) shall, unless rendered ineffective or repealed under sub-clause
(a) or (b), ipso facto cease to be effective at the expiration of
sixty days after the day on which a meeting of the State
Assembly is held.

Part -16 State Financial Procedures

State Financial Procedures
203. No tax to be levied or loan to be raised:

(1) No tax shall be levied and collected
in a State except in accordance with law.
(2) No loan shall be raised and guarantee given by the State Government
except as provided for in the Federal law.

204. State Consolidated Fund: Except for the revenues of trusts (Guthi), all revenues
received by the State Government, all loans raised on the security of revenues, all
moneys received in repayment of any loans made under the authority of any State
Act and any mounts of grants or loans received from the Government of Nepal
shall, except as otherwise provided for in the State Act, be credited to a State
Government Fund to be known as the State Consolidated Fund.

205. Expenditures from State Consolidated Fund or State Government Fund: No
expenditure shall be incurred out of the State Consolidated Fund or any other State
Government Fund except the following:

(a) moneys charged on the State Consolidated Fund,
(b) moneys required to meet the expenditure under an Appropriation
Act,
(c) advance moneys authorized by an Act required to meet expenditures,
when an Appropriation Bill is under consideration, or
(d) expenditures to be incurred in extraordinary circumstances under a
Vote of Credit Act which contains only a description of expenditures.
Provided that matters relating to the State Contingency Fund shall be
in accordance with Article 212.

206. Expenditures chargeable on State Consolidated Fund: The expenditures
relating to the following matters shall be charged on the State Consolidated Fund,
and approval of the State Assembly shall not be required for such expenditures:

(a) the amount required as remuneration and facilities payable to the
State Speaker and the State Deputy Speaker,
(b) the amount required as remuneration and facilities payable to the
Chairperson and members of the State Public Service Commission,
(c) all charges relating to debts for which the State Government is
liable,
(d) any sum required to satisfy any judgment or decree made by a court
against the State Government, and
(e) any other sum specified by a State law to be chargeable on the State
Consolidated Fund.

207. Estimates of revenues and expenditures:

(1) The State Minister for Finance
shall, in respect of every financial year, lay before the State Assembly an annual
estimate setting out, inter alia, the following matters:
(a) an estimate of revenues,
(b) the moneys required to meet the charges on the State Consolidated
Fund, and
(c) the moneys required to meet the expenditure to be provided for by a
State Appropriation Act.
(2) The annual estimate to be laid pursuant to clause (1) shall also be
accompanied by a statement of the expenses allocated to every Ministry in the
previous financial year and particulars of whether the objectives of the expenses
have been achieved.

208. State Appropriation Act: The moneys required to meet the expenditure to be
provided for by any State Appropriation Act shall be specified under appropriate
heads in an Appropriation Bill.

209. Supplementary estimates:

(1) The State Minister for Finance may lay before the
State Assembly a supplementary estimate if it is found in any financial year,-

(a) that the sum authorized to be spent for a particular service by the
State Appropriation Act for the current financial year is insufficient,
or that a need has arisen for expenditures upon some new service not
provided for in the State Appropriation Act for that year, or

(b) that the expenditures made during that financial year are in excess of
the amount authorized by the State Appropriation Act.

(2) The sums included in the supplementary estimates shall be specified
under the heads in a Supplementary Appropriation Bill.

210. Votes on Account:

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part,
a portion of the expenditure estimated for the financial year may, when aState
Appropriation Bill is under consideration, be incurred in advance under a State
Act.

(2) A Vote on Account Bill shall not be introduced until the estimates of
revenues and expenditures have been laid in accordance with Article 207, and the
sums involved in the Vote on Account shall not exceed one-third of the estimate of
expenditures for the financial year.

(3) The expenditures incurred in accordance with the State Vote on
Account Act shall be included in the State Appropriation Bill.
211. Votes of Credit: Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part, if
owing to an emergency due to natural causes or other reasons, it appears to be
impractical or inexpedient in view of the security or interest of the State to specify
the details required under clause (1) of Article 207, the State Minister for Finance
may lay before the State Assembly a Vote of Credit Bill giving only a statement of
expenditures.

212. State Contingency Fund:

(1) A State Act may create a Fund to be known as the
State Contingency Fund into which shall be paid from time to time such moneys
as may be determined by the State Act.

(2) The Fund under clause (1) shall be under the control of the State
Government. Any unforeseen expenditure may be met out of such Fund by the
State Government.

(3) The amount of the expenditure under clause (2) shall be reimbursed
as soon as possible by the State Act.

213. Act relating to financial procedures: Matters relating to the transfer of moneys appropriated by the State Act from one head to another and other financial
procedures shall be as provided for in the State Act.

Part-17 Local Executive

Local Executive
214. Executive power of Local Level:

(1) The executive power of the Local Level
shall, pursuant to this Constitution and the Federal law, be vested in the Village
Executive or the Municipal Executive.

(2) The local executive power shall be as mentioned in Schedule-8 and
Schedule-9.

(3) The responsibility for issuing general directives, controlling and
regulating the governance of the Village Body and the Municipality shall, subject
to this Constitution and other laws, lie in the Village Executive and the Municipal
Executive.

(4) The executive functions of the Village Body and the Municipality
shall be performed in the name of the Village Executive and the Municipal
Executive.

(5) Any decision or order to be issued in the name of the Village
Executive and the Municipal Executive pursuant to clause (4) and other
instruments of authorization pertaining thereto shall be authenticated as provided
for in the Local law.

215. Provisions relating to Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of Village
Executive:

(1) There shall be a Chairperson of Village Executive in each Village
Body. The Village Executive shall be formed under his or her chairpersonship.

(2) The Village Executive under clause (1) shall consist of one ViceChairperson,
Ward Chairperson elected from each Ward and members elected
pursuant to clause (4).

(3) The Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson shall be elected by the
voters residing within the concerned Village Body area by secret ballots on the
basis of one person one vote, in accordance with the first past the post electoral
system.

Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “Chairperson” and “ViceChairperson”
mean the Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson of the Village
Executive.

(4) The members of the Village Executive shall also include four women
members elected by the members of the Village Assembly from amongst
themselves and two members elected by the Village Assembly from the Dalit or
minority communities, in possession of the qualification under clause (5), no later
than fifteen days after the final results of the election to the Village Assembly
under Article 222.

(5) A person who has the following qualification shall be qualified to be
elected to the office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, Ward Chairperson and
member:

(a) being a citizen of Nepal,
(b) having completed the age of twenty one years,
(c) being a voter whose name is included in the electoral rolls of
the Village Body,
(d) not being disqualified by any law.

(6) The term of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, Ward
Chairperson and member shall be five years after the date of being elected.

(7) A person who has been elected as the Chairperson for two terms
shall not be eligible to be a candidate in an election to the Village Body.

(8) The office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, Ward Chairperson
or member shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if the Chairperson tenders resignation in writing to the ViceChairperson,
and if the Vice-Chairperson tenders resignation
before the Chairperson,

(b) if his or her term of office expires,
(c) if he or she dies.

(9) If the seat falls vacant under clause (7) while the term of office of
the Chairperson or Vice-Chairperson still remains for more than one year, the
vacancy shall be filled through by-election for the remainder of term.

216. Provisions relating to Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Municipal Executive:

(1)Each Municipality shall have a Mayor. The Municipal Executive shall be formed
under his or her chairpersonship.

(2) The Municipal Executive under clause (1) shall consist of one
Deputy Mayor, Ward Chairperson elected from each Ward and members elected
pursuant to clause (4).

(3) The Mayor and the Deputy Mayor shall be elected by the voters
residing within the concerned Municipal area by secret ballots on the basis of one
person one vote, in accordance with the first past the post electoral system.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “Mayor” and “Deputy Mayor” mean
the Mayor and the Deputy Mayor of the Municipal Executive.

(4) The members of the Municipal Executive shall also include five
women members elected by the members of the Municipal Assembly from
amongst themselves and three members elected by the Municipal Assembly from
the Dalit or minority communities, in possession of the qualification under clause.

(5), no later than fifteen days after the final results of the election to the Municipal
Assembly under Article 223.

(5) A person who has the following qualification shall be qualified to be
elected to the office of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, Ward Chairperson and member:
(a) being a citizen of Nepal,

(b) having completed the age of twenty one years,

(c) being a voter whose name is included in the electoral rolls of
the Municipality,
(d) not being disqualified by any law.

(6) The term of office of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, Ward Chairperson
and member shall be five years after the date of being elected.

(7) A person who has been elected as the Mayor for two terms shall not
be eligible to be a candidate in an election to the Municipality.

(8) The office of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, Ward Chairperson or
Member shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if the Mayor tenders resignation in writing to the Deputy
Mayor, and if the Deputy Mayor tenders resignation in
writing before the Mayor,
(b) if his or her term of office expires,
(c) if he or she dies.

(9) If the seat falls vacant under clause (8) while the term of office of
the Mayor or Deputy Mayor still remains for more than one year, the vacancy
shall be filled through by-election for the remainder of term.

217. Judicial Committee:

(1) There shall be a three-member judicial committee to be
coordinated by its Vice-Chairperson in the case of a Village Body and by its
Deputy Mayor in the case of a Municipality, in order to settle disputes under their
respective jurisdictions in accordance with law.

(2) The judicial committee under clause (1) shall consist of two
members elected by the members of the Village Assembly or the Municipal
Assembly from amongst themselves.

218. Conduct of business of Village Executive and Municipal Executive: Allocation
and conduct of business of the Village Executive and the Municipal Executive
shall be carried out in accordance with the rules approved by the Village Executive
and the Municipal Executive, respectively.

219. Other provisions relating to Local Level Executive: Other provisions relating to
the Local Level Executive, except those contained in this Part, shall be as provided
for in the Federal law, subject to this Constitution.

220. District Assembly and District Coordination Committee:

(1) There shall be a
District Assembly to make coordination between the Village Bodies and
Municipalities within the district.

(2) The District Assembly shall consist of Chairpersons and ViceChairpersons
of Village Executives, and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal
Executives within the district. The first meeting of the District Assembly shall be
held no later than thirty days of the date of final results of the election to the
Village Assemblies and the Municipal Assemblies.

(3) The District Assembly shall elect the District Coordination
Committee consisting of a maximum of nine Members including one Chief, one
Deputy Chief, at least three women and at least one Dalit or minority. The District
Coordination Committee shall discharge all functions required to be discharged by
the District Assembly.

(4) A Member of a Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly within the
concerned district shall be eligible to be a candidate for the office of Chief, Deputy
Chief or Member of the District Coordination Committee. If elected to the office
of Chief, Deputy Chief or Member of the District Coordination Committee, his or
her office of Member of Village Assembly or of Municipal Assembly shall ipso
facto lapse.

(5) The term of office of the Chief, Deputy Chief and member of the
District Coordination Committee shall be five years after the date of being elected.

(6) The office of the Chief, Deputy Chief and member of the District
Coordination Committee shall become vacant in any of the following
circumstances.

(a) if the Chief tenders resignation in writing before the Deputy
Chief, and if the Deputy Chief or member tenders resignation
in writing before the Chief,
(b) if his or her term of office expires,
(c) if he or she dies.

(7) The functions, duties and powers of the District Assembly shall be as
follows:
(a) to make coordination between the Village Bodies and Municipalities
within the district,
(b) to monitor development and construction works to make balance of
such works,
(c) to make coordination between the Federal and the State Government
offices and Village Bodies and Municipalities in the district,
(d) to perform other functions as provided for in the State law.

(8) Provisions relating to the conduct of the District Assembly, facilities
of Members of the District Coordination Committee and other matters relating to
the District Assembly shall be as provided for in the State law.

Part-18 Local Legislature

Local Legislature
221. Legislative powers of Local Level:

(1) The legislative powers of the Local Level
shall be vested in the Village Assembly and the Municipal Assembly, subject to
this Constitution.
(2) The legislative powers of the Village Assembly and the Municipal
Assembly shall be as mentioned in the lists contained in Schedule-8 and Schedule 9.

222. Composition of Village Assembly: (1) Each Village Body shall have a Village
Assembly.

(2) A Village Assembly under clause

(1) shall consist of the
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Village Executive, Ward Chairpersons,
and four members elected from each ward and Members of the Village Executive
elected from Dalit and minority communities pursuant to clause (4) of Article 215.
(3) A Village Assembly to be formed under clause (1) shall have
representation of at least two women from each ward.

(4) Each ward of a Village Body under the Federal law shall have a
Ward Committee composed of the Ward Chairperson and four members. Such
Ward Chairperson and Ward members shall be elected in accordance with the first
past the post electoral system.

(5) Every person who has completed the age of eighteen years and
whose name is included in the electoral rolls of the Village Bodyshall have a right
to vote as provided for in the Federal law.
(6) A person who has the following qualification shall be qualified to
become a candidate for the office of the Member of the Village Assembly:

(a) being a citizen of Nepal,
(b) having completed the age of twenty one years,
(c) being his or her name included in the electoral rolls of the
Village Body, and
(d) not being disqualified by any law.
(7) Matters relating to the election to the Village Assembly and other
matters pertaining thereto shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

223. Composition of Municipal Assembly: (1) Each Municipality shall have a
Municipal Assembly.

(2) A Municipal Assembly under clause (1) shall consist of the Mayor
and the Deputy Mayor of the Municipal Executive, Ward Chairpersons, and four
members elected from each Ward and members of the Municipal Executive
elected from Dalit or minority communities pursuant to clause (4) of Article 216.

(3) A Municipal Assembly to be formed under clause (1) shall have
representation of at least two women from each Ward.

(4) Each ward of a Municipality shall have a Ward Committee
composed of one Ward Chairperson and four members as provided for in the
Federal law. Such Ward Chairperson and Ward members shall be elected in
accordance with the first past the post electoral system.

(5) Every person who has completed the age of eighteen years and
whose name is included in the electoral rolls of the Municipality shall have a right
to vote as provided for in the Federal law.

(6) A person who has the following qualification shall be qualified to be
a candidate for the office of member of the Municipal Assembly:

(a) being a citizen of Nepal,
(b) having completed the age of twenty one years,
(c) being his or her name included in the electoral rolls of the
Municipality, and
(d) not being disqualified by any law.

(7) Matters relating to the election to the Municipal Assembly and other
matters pertaining thereto shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
224. Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of Village Assembly and Municipal
Assembly: The Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of a Village Executive and the
Mayor and Deputy Mayor of a Municipal Executive shall ipso factobe the
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Village Assembly and the Municipal
Assembly, respectively, and perform functions as such.

225. Term of Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly: The term of a Village
Assembly and of a Municipal Assembly shall be five years for the date of election.
Another Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly shall be elected not later than
six months of the expiration of such a term.

226. Powers to make law:

(1) A Village Assembly and a Municipal Assembly may
make necessary laws on the matters set forth in the Lists contained in Schedule-8
and Schedule-9.
(2) The process for making laws under clause (1) shall be as provided
for in the State Law.

227. Other provisions relating to Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly: Other
matters relating to the conduct of business of a Village Assembly and Municipal
Assembly, rules of procedures of meetings, formation of committees, conditions in
which the office of member falls vacant, facilities receivable by members of the
Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly and employees and offices of the
Village Body and Municipality shall be as provided for in the State law.

 

Part-19 Local Financial Procedures

Local Financial Procedures
228. No tax to be levied or loan to be raised:

(1) No tax shall be levied and collected
and no loan raised in the Local level except in accordance with law.
(2) The Local level may levy tax by law on matters falling within its
domain without prejudice to national economic policies, carriage of goods and
services, capital and labour market, and the neighbouring State or Local level.
229. Local Consolidated Fund:

(1) Each Village Body and Municipality under the
Local Level shall have one Local Consolidate Fund. All revenues received by the
Village Body or Municipality, any amounts of grants received from the
Government of Nepal and the State Government, all loans raised by the Village
Body and Municipality, and amounts received from other sources shall be credited
to such a Fund.

(2) Matters relating to expenditures from the Local Consolidated Fund
under clause (1) shall be as provided for in the Local law.

230. Estimates of revenues and expenditures of Village Body and Municipality: (1)
The Village Executive and the Municipal Executive shall, subject to this
Constitution, lay an estimate of revenues and expenditures of every financial year
before, and have the estimate passed by, the Village Assembly and the Municipal
Assembly, respectively, as provided for in the Local law.

(2) If, in laying an estimate of revenues and expenditures under clause
(1), the Village Executive or Municipal Executive is required to make a deficit
budget, it must purpose also the sources to meet the deficit as provided for in the
Federal law and the State law.

Part-20 Interrelations between Federation, State and Local Level

Interrelations between Federation, State and Local Level
231. Legislative interrelations between Federation and States:

1) The Federal Law
may be made to be applicable to the whole of, or, if required, to any part of, the
territory of Nepal.
(2) A State law may be made to be applicable to the whole of, or as
required, to any part of the territory of the State.
(3) If two or more States make a request to the Government of Nepal to
make laws on any matter enumerated in Schedule-6, the Federal Parliament may
make necessary laws. Such laws shall be applicable only to the concerned States.
232. Relations between Federation, State and Local level:

(1) The relations between
the Federation, States, and Local level shall be based on the principles of
cooperation, co-existence and coordination.

(2) The Government of Nepal may, pursuant to this Constitution and the
Federal Law, give necessary directions to any State Council of Ministers on
matters of national importance and on matters to be coordinated between the
States, and it shall be the duty of the concerned State Council of Ministers to abide
by such directions.

(3) If any such type of act as may seriously undermine the sovereignty,
territorial integrity, nationality or independence of Nepal is carried out in any
State, the President may, as required, warn such State Council of Ministers,
suspend or dissolve the State Council of Ministers and the State Assembly for a
period not exceeding six months.

(4) Any suspension or dissolution of any State Council of Ministers and
State Assembly made pursuant to clause (3) must get ratified by a two-thirds
majority of the total number of the then members of the Federal Parliament within
thirty five days.

(5) If dissolution made pursuant to clause (3) is ratified by the Federal
Parliament, election to the State Assembly shall be held in such State within six
months.Provided that such suspension or dissolution shall ipso facto be invalid if it
is not ratified by the Federal Parliament.

(6) The Federal ruling shall apply to such State during the period of
such suspension if the suspension made pursuant to clause (3) is ratified pursuant
to clause (4) and until election to the State Assembly is held pursuant to clause (5).

(7) During the continuance of the Federal rule, the Federal Parliament
may make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the List contained in
Schedule-6. Such laws shall continue to exist until repealed by other laws made by
the concerned State Assembly.

(8) The Government of Nepal may, directly or through the State
Government, render necessary assistance to, and give necessary directives to, any
Village Executive or Municipal Executive, pursuant to this Constitution and the
Federal law. It shall be the duty of the Village Executive or Municipal Executive to
abide by such directives.

233. Relations between States:

(1) One State shall render assistance in the execution
of legal provisions or judicial and administrative decisions or orders of another
State.

(2) A State may exchange information and consult with another State on
matters of common concern and interest, coordinate each other on their activities
and legislations and extend mutual assistance.

(3) A State shall, in accordance with its State law, provide equal
security, treatment and facility to residents of another State.

234. Inter-State Council: (1) There shall be an Inter-State Council as follows to settle
political disputes arising between the Federation and a State and between States:

(a) Prime Minister – Chairperson
(b) Minister for Home Affairs of the Government of Nepal- Member
(c) Minister for Finance of the Government of Nepal – Member
(d) Chief Ministers of the concerned States – Member

(2) The Inter-State Council may meet as required.
(3) The Inter-State Council may invite to its meeting a Minister of the
Government of Nepal and a Minister of the concerned State who is responsible for
the matter of dispute and a concerned expert.
(4) The rules of procedures of the meeting of the Inter-State Council
shall be as determined by the Council itself.

235. Coordination between Federation, State and Local Level:

(1) The Federal
Parliament shall make necessary laws in order to maintain coordination between
the Federation, State and Local level.

(2) The State Assembly may maintain coordination between the State
and Village Bodies or Municipalities and settle political disputes, if any, that have
arisen, in coordination with the concerned Village Body, Municipality and the
District Coordination Committee.

(3) The processes and procedures for the settlement of disputes under
clause (2) shall be as provided for in the State law.

236. Inter-State trade: Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this
Constitution, it is prohibited to make any kind of obstruction to the carriage of
goods or extension of services by a State or Local level to another State or Local
level or to the carriage of goods or extension of services to any State or Local
Level or to levy tax, fee or charge thereon or to make any kind of discrimination
on the carriage or extension of such services or goods.

237. Not to affect jurisdiction of Constitutional Bench of Supreme Court: Nothing
contained in this Part shall affect the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Bench of the
Supreme Court under Article 137.

Part-21 Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority

Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority
238. Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority:

(1) There shall be a
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority of Nepal, consisting of the
Chief Commissioner and four other Commissioners. The Chief Commissioner
shall act as the Chairperson of the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of
Authority.

(2) The President shall, on recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chief Commissioner and Commissioners.

(3) The term of office of the Chief Commissioner and Commissioners
shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chief Commissioner or a Commissioner shall be vacant in any of the following
circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,

(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,

(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,

(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chief Commissioner and Commissioners appointed under
clause (2) shall not be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that a Commissioner may be appointed to the office of Chief
Commissioner, and when a Commissioner is so appointed as the Chief
Commissioner, his or her term of office shall be so computed as to include his or
her term as the Commissioner.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chief
Commissioner or a Commissioner of the Commission for the Investigation of
Abuse of Authority if he or she possesses the following qualification:

(a) holding a bachelor’s degree from a recognized university,

(b) not being a member of any political party at the time of
appointment,

(c) having gained at least twenty years of experiences in the field
of either accounting, revenue, engineering, law, development
or research and being a distinguished person,

(d) having attained the age of forty five years, and

(e) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief
Commissioner and the Commissioners shall be as provided for inthe Federal law.
The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chief Commissioner and the
Commissioners shall not, so long as they hold office, be altered to their
disadvantage.Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chief Commissioner or
Commissioner shall not be eligible for appointment in other government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

239. Functions, duties and powers of the Commission for the Investigation of
Abuse of Authority:

(1)The Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of
Authority may, in accordance with law, conduct, or cause to be conducted,

investigations of any abuse of authority committed through corruption by any
person holding public office.

Provided that this clause shall not apply to any official in relation to whom
this Constitution itself separately provides for such action and to any official in
relation to whom other law provides for a separate special provision.

(2) In the case of the persons who can be removed from office by
passing a motion of impeachment under Article 101, the Judges who can be
removed by the Judicial Council and the persons who are liable to action under the
Army Act, it may conduct, or cause to be conducted, investigations in accordance
with the Federal law after they have been removed from office.

(3) If the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority finds,
on investigation conducted pursuant to clause (1) or (2), that a person holding
public office has committed an act which is defined by law as corruption, it may
file, or cause to be filed, a case against that person and other person involved in
that offense in the competent court in accordance with law.

(4) If, on investigation conducted pursuant to clause (1) or (2), any act
or action done or taken by a person holding public office appears to be of such
nature as to be falling under the jurisdiction of another official or body, the
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority may write to the
concerned official or body for necessary action.

(5) The Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority may
delegate any of its functions, duties and powers on the conducting of
investigations or filing cases, to the Chief Commissioner, a Commissioner or an
officer employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and complied with
subject to the specified conditions.

(6) Other functions, duties and powers and rules of procedure of the
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority shall be as provided for in
the Federal law.

Part-22 Auditor General

Auditor General
240. Auditor General:

(1) There shall be an Auditor General of Nepal.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Auditor General.

(3) The term of office of the Auditor General shall be six years from the
date of appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Auditor General shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,
(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Auditor General appointed under clause (2) shall not be eligible
for reappointment.
(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Auditor General if
he or she possesses the following qualification:

(a) having served in the Special Class of the Government of
Nepal or having at least twenty years of experiences in audit
related work, after having obtained a bachelor’s degree in
management, commerce or accounting from a recognized
university or having passed a chartered accountancy
examination,

(b) not being a member of any political party at the time of
appointment,
(c) having attained the age of forty five years, and
(d) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and conditions of service of the Auditor General
shall be as provided for in the Federal law. The remuneration and conditions of
service of the Auditor General shall not, so long as he or she holds office, be
altered to his or her disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Auditor General shall not be eligible
for appointment in another government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.
241. Functions, duties and powers of Auditor-General:

(1) The accounts of all
Federal and State Government Offices including the Office of the President,
Office of the Vice-President, Supreme Court, Federal Parliament, State Assembly,
State Government, Local level, Constitutional Bodies and Offices thereof, Courts,
Office of the Attorney General, Nepal Army, Nepal Police and Armed Police
Force, Nepal shall be audited by the Auditor-General in accordance with law,
having regard to, inter alia, the regularity, economy, efficiency, effectiveness and
the propriety thereof.

(2) The Auditor General shall be consulted in the matter of appointment
of an auditor to carry out the audit of a corporate body of which the Government
of Nepal or State Government owns more than fifty percent of the shares or assets.

The Auditor General may also issue necessary directives setting forth the
principles for carrying out the audit of such corporate body.

(3) The Auditor General shall, at all times, have power to examine any
books of accounts for the purpose of carrying out the functions under clause (1). It
shall be the duty of the concerned chief of office to provide all such documents
and information as may be demanded by the Auditor General or any of his or her
employees.

(4) The accounts to be audited pursuant to clause (1) shall be maintained
in the form prescribed by the Auditor General, as provided for in the Federal law.

(5) In addition to the accounts of the offices mentioned in clause (1), the
Federal law may also require the accounts of any other offices or bodies to be
audited by the Auditor General.

Part -23 Public Service Commission

Public Service Commission
242. Public Service Commission:

(1) There shall be a Public Service Commission of
Nepal, consisting of the Chairperson and four other Members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and Members.

(3) At least fifty percent of the total number of Members of the Public
Service Commission shall be appointed from amongst the persons who have
worked for twenty or more in any government service, and the rest of the
Members shall be appointed from amongst the persons who hold reputation after
having done research, investigation, teaching or any other significant work in the
field of science, technology, art, literature, law, public administration, sociology or
other sphere of national life.

(4) The term of office of the Chairperson and Members of the Public
Service Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(5) The Chairperson and Members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.Provided that a Member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a Member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the Member.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (4), the office of the
Chairperson or a Member of the Public Service Commission shall be vacant in any
of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,

(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,

(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she dies.
(7) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the Public Service Commission if he or she possesses the following
qualification:
(a) holding a master’s degree from a recognized university,
(b) not being a member of any political party at the time of
appointment,
(c) having attained the age of forty five years, and
(d) being of high moral character.

(8) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson
and the members of the Public Service Commission shall be as provided for inthe
Federal law. The remuneration and conditions of service ofthe Chairperson and the
Members of the Public Service Commission shall not, so long as they hold office,
be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(9) A person once appointed as the Chairperson and the members of the
Public Service Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

243. Functions, duties and powers of the Public Service Commission: (1) It shall be
the duty of the Public Service Commission to conduct examinations for the
selection of suitable candidates to be appointed to the positions in the Civil
Service.

Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “positions in the Civil
Service” means all positions in the services of the Government of Nepal, other
than the positions in the services of Army personnel, Nepal Police or Armed
Police Force, Nepal and such other positions in the services as are excluded by an
Act from the Civil Service.

(2) The Public Service Commission shall conduct written examinations
to be given for appointment to the offices of the Nepal Army, Nepal Police,
Armed Police Force, Nepal, other Federal governmental services and of bodies
corporate, other than the positions in the Civil Service.
Explanation: For the purposes of this Article, “body corporate” means a
corporation, company, bank or board of which more than fifty percent or more of
the shares or assets is owned or controlled by the Government of Nepal, except a
university or Education Service Commission, or a commission, corporation,
authority, body, academy, board, centre, council and other body corporate of
similar nature established under the Federal law or formed by the Government of
Nepal.

(3) The Public Service Commission shall be consulted on the general
principles to be followed in the course of making appointment and promotion to
any position of the Nepal army, Nepal Police, Armed Police Force, Nepal and
other Federal government services.

(4) The Public Service Commission shall be consulted on the laws
relating to the conditions of service of the employees in the service of a body
corporate and on the general principles to be followed in the course of making
promotion to any position of such service and taking departmental action against
any such employee

(5) No permanent appointment to any pensionable position chargeable
on the Government of Nepal shall be made except in consultation with the Public
Service Commission.
(6) The Public Service Commission shall be consulted on the following
subjects:

(a) matters concerning the law relating to the conditions of service of
the Federal Civil Service;

(b) the principles to be followed in making appointments to,
promotions to, the Federal Civil Service or positions thereof and
taking departmental action;

(c) matters concerning the suitability of any candidate for
appointment to the Federal Civil Service position for a period of
more than six months;

(d) matters concerning the suitability of any candidate for transfer or
promotion from a position in one type of Federal Civil Service to
a position in other type of Federal Civil Service or transfer or
promotion from other government service to the Federal Civil
Service or for a change in service or transfer from a position in a
State Civil Service to a position in the Federal Civil Service or
from a position in the Federal Civil Service to a State Civil
Service,

(e) matters concerning the permanent transfer or promotion of an
employee working in any position which does not require
consultation with the Public Service Commission to any position
which requires consultation with the Public Service Commission;
and
(f) matters relating to departmental action against any employee of
the Federal Civil Service.

(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (6), matters falling
within the jurisdiction of the Judicial Service Commission under Article 154 shall
be governed by that Article.

(8) The Public Service Commission may so delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to its Chairperson or Member, an employee of the
Government of Nepal as to be exercised and complied with subject to the specified
conditions.

(9) Other functions, duties and powers and rules of procedure of the
Public Service Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
244. Provisions relating to State Public Service Commission:

(1) Each State shall
have a State Public Service Commission.
(2) The functions, duties and powers of the State Public Service
Commission shall be as provided for in the State law.
(3) The Federal Parliament shall by law determine grounds and
standards for the purposes of clause (2).

 

Part-24 Election Commission

Election Commission
245. Election Commission:

(1) There shall be an Election Commission of Nepal,
consisting of a Chief Commissioner and four other Commissioners. The Chief
Commissioner shall act as the chairperson of the Election Commission.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chief Election Commissioner and Commissioners.

(3) The term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner and
Commissioners of the Election Commission shall be six years from the date of
appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chief Election Commissioner or Election Commissioner shall be vacant in any of
the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,
(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chief Election Commissioner and Commissioners appointed
under clause (2) shall not be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that a Commissioner may be appointed to the office of Chief
Election Commissioner, and when a Commissioner is so appointed as the Chief
Election Commissioner, his or her term of office shall be so computed as to
include his or her term as the Commissioner.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chief Election
Commissioner or an Election Commissioner if he or she possesses the following
qualification:
(a) holding a bachelor’s degree from a recognized university,
(b) not being a member of any political party at the time of
appointment,
(c) having attained the age of forty five years, and
(d) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief
Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners shall be as provided for in
the Federal law. The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chief Election
Commissioner and the Commissioners shall not, so long as they hold office, be
altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chief Election Commissioner and a
Commissioner of the Election Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in
other government service.

Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.
246. Functions, duties and powers of the Election Commission:

(1) The Election
Commission shall, subject to this Constitution and the Federal law, conduct,
supervise, direct and control the election to the President, Vice-President,
members of the Federal Parliament, members of State Assemblies and members of
Local level. For these purposes, the Election Commission shall prepare electoral
rolls.

(2) The Election Commission shall hold a referendum on a matter of
national importance pursuant to this Constitution and the Federal law

(3) If, after nomination of candidacy for the President, Vice-President,
member of the Federal Parliament, member of State Assemblies or member of
Local level has been filed but before the election results are declared, a question
arises about the qualification of a candidate, the Election Commission shall decide
that question.

(4) The Election Commission may so delegate any of its functions,
duties and powers to the Chief Election Commissioner, Election Commissioner or
any government employee as to be exercised and complied with subject to the
specified conditions.

(5) Other functions, duties and powers and rules of procedure of the
Election Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

247 To provide necessary assistance to Election Commission: The Government of
Nepal, State Government and Local Government shall provide such employees and
other assistance to the Election Commission as may be required to perform its
functions pursuant to this Constitution.

Part-25 National Human Rights Commission

National Human Rights Commission
248. National Human Rights Commission:

(1) There shall be a National Human
Rights Commission of Nepal, consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, appoint the Chairperson and members.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the National
Human Rights Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) The Chairperson and members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.Provided that a Member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the Member.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or member of the National Human Rights Commission shall be
vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,

(c) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,

(d) if he or she dies.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the National Human Rights Commission if he or she possesses the
following qualification:

(a) in the case of the Chairperson, being a retired Chief Justice or retired
Judge of the Supreme Court and having rendered outstanding
contribution to the protection and promotion of human rights or
being a renowned person having been active for at least twenty years
in and rendered outstanding contribution to the protection and
promotion of human rights or to various fields of national life,
(b) in the case of a Member, being a person being involved in the field
of the protection and promotion of human rights or rights and
interests of the child or being a renowned person having been active
for at least twenty years in and rendered outstanding contribution to
various fields of national life,

(c) holding a bachelor’s degree from a recognized university,

(d) having attained the age of forty five years,

(e) not being a member of any political party at the time of appointment,

(f) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson
and members of the National Human Rights Commission shall be as provided for
in the Federal law. The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chairperson
and members of the National Human Rights Commission shall not, so long as they
hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Human Rights Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

249. Functions, duties and powers of National Human Rights Commission:

(1) It
shall be the duty of the National Human Rights Commission to respect, protect
and promote human rights and ensure effective enforcement thereof.

(2) For the accomplishment of the duty mentioned in clause (1), the
National Human Rights Commission shall perform the following functions:

(a) to inquire, on its own initiative or on petition or complaint presented
in or sent to the Commission by a victim or any person on his or her
behalf or on information received by the Commission from any
source, into and investigate complaints of violations of human rights
of an individual or group or abetment thereof, and make
recommendation for action against the perpetrators,

(b) if any official who has the responsibility or duty to prevent
violations of human rights fails to fulfil or perform his or her
responsibility or duty or shows reluctance in the fulfilment or
performance of his or her responsibility or duty, to make
recommendation to the concerned authority to take departmental
action against such official,

(c) if it is required to institute a case against any person or organization
who has violated human rights, to make recommendation to file a
case in the court in accordance with law;

(d) to coordinate and collaborate with the civil society in order to
enhance awareness on human rights,

(e) to make recommendation, accompanied by the reasons and grounds,
to the concerned body for taking departmental action against and
imposing punishment on those who have violated human rights,

(f) to carry out periodic reviews of the relevant laws relating to human
rights and make recommendation to the Government of Nepal for
necessary improvements in and amendments to such laws.

(g) if Nepal has to become a party to any international treaty or
agreement on human rights, to make recommendation, accompanied
by the reasons therefor, to the Government of Nepal; and monitor
whether any such treaty or agreement to which Nepal is already a
party has been implemented, and if it is found not to have been
implemented, to make recommendation to the Government of Nepal
for its implementation,

(h) to publish, in accordance with law, the names of the officials,
persons or bodies who have failed to observe or implement any
recommendations or directives made or given by the National
Human Rights Commission in relation to the violations of human
rights, and record them as violators of human rights.

(3) In discharging its functions or performing its duties, the National
Human Rights Commission may exercise the following powers:

(a) to exercise all such powers as of a court in respect of the summoning
and enforcing the attendance of any person before the Commission
and seeking and recording his or her information or statements or
depositions, examining evidence and producing exhibits and proofs,

(b) on receipt of information by the Commission in any manner that a
serious violation of human rights has already been committed or is
going to be committed, to search any person or his or her residence
or office, enter such residence or office without notice, and, in the
course of making such search, take possession of any document,
evidence or proof related with the violation of human rights,

(c) in the event of necessity to take action immediately on receipt of
information that the human rights of any person are being violated,
to enter any government office or any other place without notice and
rescue such person,

(d) to order for the provision of compensation in accordance with law to
any person who is a victim of the violations of human rights;

(4) The National Human Rights Commission may so delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, any of its
Members or a government employee as to be exercised and complied with subject
to the specified conditions.

(5) Other functions, duties and powers and rules of procedure of the
National Human Rights Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

Part-26 National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission

National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission
250. National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission:

(1) There shall be a
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission of Nepal, consisting of a
maximum of five members including a Chairperson.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the National Natural Resources
and Fiscal Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the National
Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall be six years from the date of
appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or member of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission
shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,
(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chairperson and members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that a member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the member.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission if he or she
possesses the following qualification:

(a) having gained expertise upon being active for at least twenty years in
the field of natural resources or fiscal management, economics, law,
management, after holding a bachelor’s degree in the relevant subject
from a recognized university,

(b) not being a member of any political party at the time of appointment,

(c) having attained the age of forty five years,

(d) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson
and members of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall be
as provided for in the Federal law, and their remuneration and conditions of
service shall not, so long as they hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall not be eligible for
appointment in other government service.

Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

251. Functions, duties and powers of National Natural Resources and Fiscal
Commission:

(1) The functions, duties and powers of the National Natural
Resources and Fiscal Commission shall be as follows:

(a) to determine detailed basis and modality for the distribution of
revenues between the Federal, State and Local Governments out of
the Federal Consolidated Fund in accordance with the Constitution
and law,
(b) to make recommendation about equalization grants to be provided to
the State and Local Governments out of the Federal Consolidated
Fund,
(c) to conduct study and research work and prepare parameters as to
conditional grants to be provided to the State and Local
Governments in accordance with national policies and programs,
norms/standards and situation of infrastructures,

(d) to determine detailed basis and modality for the distribution of
revenues between the State and Local Governments out of the State
Consolidated Fund,

(e) to recommend measures to meet expenditures of the Federal, State
and Local Governments, and to reform revenue collection,

(f) to analyze macro-economic indicators and recommend ceiling of
internal loans that the Federal, State and Local Governments can
borrow,

(g) to review the bases for the distribution between the Federal and State
Governments of revenues and recommend for revision,

(h) to set bases for the determination of shares of the Government of
Nepal, State Government and Local level in investments and returns,
in the mobilization of natural resources,
(i) to do study and research work on possible disputes that may arise
between the Federation and the States, between States, between a
State and a Local level, and between Local levels, and make
suggestions to act in a coordinated manner for the prevention of such
disputes.

(2) The National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall carry
out necessary study and research work about environmental impact assessment
required in the course of distribution of natural resources, and make
recommendations to the Government of Nepal.

(3) Other functions, duties and powers and rules of procedure of the
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission, detailed bases required to be
followed in the mobilization of natural resources or distribution of revenues, and
other matters including conditions of service of the officials of the Commission
shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

Part- 27 Other Commissions

Other Commissions
252. National Women Commission:

(1) There shall be a National Women
Commission of Nepal, consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the National Women
Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the National
Women Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or member of the National Women Commission shall be vacant in
any of the following circumstances:(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,

(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,

(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,

(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chairperson and members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that a member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the member.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the National Women Commission if he or she possesses the following
qualification:

(a) being a woman having rendered outstanding contribution, for at least
ten years, to the field of rights and interests of women or gender
justice or women development or human rights and law,

(b) in the case of the Chairperson, holding a bachelor’s degree from a
recognized university,

(c) having attained the age of forty five years,

(d) not being a member of any political party at the time of appointment,
and

(e) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of the National Women Commission shall be as provided for in the
Federal law, and their remuneration and conditions of service shall not, so long as
they hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Women Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

253. Functions, duties and powers of National Women Commission:

(1) The
functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission shall be as
follows:

(a) to formulate policies and programs concerning the rights and interests of
the women and submit them to the Government of Nepal for
implementation.

(b) to monitor as to whether laws concerning the rights and interests of the
women and obligations under the international treaties to which Nepal is
a party have been implemented, and make suggestions, accompanied by
the measures for their effective compliance and implementation to the
Government of Nepal,

(c) in order to have the women included in the mainstream of national
development and ensure proportional participation in all organs of the
State, to assess, monitor and evaluate the existing policies and
programs, and make recommendation to the Government of Nepal for
their effective implementation,

(d) to carry out study and research work on the legal provisions relating to
gender equality, empowerment of women and women, make
recommendations to the concerned bodies on reforms to be made on
such laws, and monitor the same.

(e) to make suggestions to the Government of Nepal about the preparation
of reports to be submitted by Nepal in accordance with the provisions
contained in the international treaties or agreements concerning
women’s rights, to which Nepal is a party,

(f) if it is necessary to file cases against any persons or bodies on matters of
violence against women or being subjected to social ill-practices or
infringement of or deprivation of enjoyment of women’s rights, to make
recommendations to the concerned bodies to file such cases in courts in
accordance with the law.

(2) The National Women Commission may so delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, any of its
members or any employee of the Government of Nepal as to be exercised and
complied with subject to the specified conditions.

(3) Other functions, duties and powers and other relevant matters of the
National Women Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
254. Powers to establish offices in States: The National Women Rights Commission
may, as required, establish its offices in States

.
255. National Dalit Commission: (1) There shall be a National Dalit Commission of
Nepal, consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the National DalitCommission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the National
Dalit Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or member of the National Dalit Commission shall be vacant in any
of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,

(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,

(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,

(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chairperson and members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.Provided that a member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the member.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the National Dalit Commission if he or she possesses the following
qualification:

(a) being a person having rendered outstanding contribution to the field
of rights and interests of the Dalit community or human rights and
law, for at least ten years,

(b) in the case of the Chairperson, holding at least a bachelor’s degree
from a recognized university,

(c) having attained the age of forty five years,

(d) not being a member of any political party at the time of appointment,
and

(e) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of the National Dalit Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal
law, and their remuneration and conditions of service shall not, so long as they
hold office, be altered to their disadvantage. Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Dalit Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
government service.Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

256. Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission:

(1) The functions,
duties and powers of the National Dalit Commission shall be as follows:
(a) to conduct study and exploration as to the overall situation of the Dalit
community, identify areas of necessary policy, legal and institutional
reforms in that field, and make recommendations to the Government of
Nepal,
(b) to formulate national policies and programs concerning the interests of
the Dalit for the upliftment and development of the Dalit, putting an end
to caste-based discrimination, oppression and discrimination, and
submit such policies and programs to the Government of Nepal for their
implementation,
(c) to monitor as to whether laws concerning the interests of the Dalit,
including the special provisions made for the upliftment and interests of
the Dalit community have been effectively implemented, and in the
event of absence of observance or implementation, to make suggestions
to the Government of Nepal for the observance or implementation
thereof,
(d) to make suggestions to the Government of Nepal about the preparation
of reports to be submitted by Nepal in accordance with the provisions
contained in the international treaties or agreements concerning the
rights of the Dalit community, to which Nepal is a party,
(e) in order to have the Dalit community included in the mainstream of
national development and ensure proportional participation in all organs
of the State, to assess, monitor and evaluate the existing policies and
programs, and make recommendation to the Government of Nepal for
their effective implementation,
(f) if it is necessary to file cases against any persons or bodies on matters of
being victims of caste-based discrimination and untouchability or social ill-practices or infringement of or deprivation of enjoyment of the rights
of the Dalit, to make recommendations to the concerned bodies to file
such cases in courts in accordance with the law.

(2) The National Dalit Commission may so delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, any of its
members or any employee of the Government of Nepal as to be exercised and
complied with subject to the specified conditions.

(3) Other functions, duties and powers and other relevant matters of the
National Dalit Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

257. Powers to establish offices in States: The National Dalit Commission may, as
required, establish its offices in States.

258. National Inclusion Commission:

(1) There shall be a National Inclusion
Commission of Nepal, consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the National Inclusion
Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the National
Inclusion Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or member of the National Inclusion Commission shall be vacant in
any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,
(b) if he or she attains the age of sixty-five years,
(c) if a motion of impeachment is passed against him or her under
Article 101,
(d) if he or she is removed from office by the President on
recommendation of the Constitutional Council on grounds of
his or her inability to hold office and discharge the functions
due to physical or mental illness,
(e) if he or she dies.

(5) The Chairperson and members appointed under clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that a member may be appointed to the office of Chairperson, and
when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, his or her term of office shall
be so computed as to include his or her term as the member.

(6) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the National Inclusion Commission if he or she possesses the following
qualification:
(a) being a person having rendered outstanding contribution, for at least
ten years, to the field of social inclusion, rights and interests or
development of persons with disabilities, minority and marginalized
communities and backward areas and classes or human rights,
(b) in the case of the Chairperson, holding a bachelor’s degree from a
recognized university,
(c) having attained the age of forty five years,
(d) not being a member of any political party at the time of appointment,
and
(e) being of high moral character.

(7) The remuneration and conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of the National Inclusion Commission shall be as provided for in the
Federal law, and their remuneration and conditions of service shall not, so long as
they hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in cases where a state of
emergency is declared because of extreme economic disarrays.

(8) A person once appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Inclusion Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
government service.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or
recommendation after carrying out a study or research on any subject.

259. Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission:

(1) The
functions, duties and powers of the National Inclusion Commission shall be as
follows:
(a) to conduct study and research works for the protection of the rights and
interests of the communities, including KhasArya, Pichhada class,
persons with disabilities, senior citizens, labours, peasants, minorities
and marginalized community, backward class, people of Karnali and the
indigent class,
(b) to study the status of implementation of the policies and laws adopted
by the Government of Nepal for the inclusion of the community, class
and region mentioned in sub-clause (a) and make suggestions to the
Government for reforms,
(c) to study as to whether there has been appropriate representation of the
community, class and region mentioned in sub-clause (a) in the organs
of the State and make suggestions to the Government of Nepal to review
the special provisions made for the representation of such community,
class and region,
(d) to study as to whether the protection, empowerment and development of
the community, class and region mentioned in sub-clause (a) has been
satisfactory and make recommendations to the Government of Nepal
about policies to be pursued in the future,
(e) to make suggestions to the Government of Nepal about policies and
programs to be pursued for the development and prosperity of the
Karnali and backward regions,
(f) to make recommendations for timely revisions of laws concerning
minority and marginalized communities,
(g) to monitor the status of implementation of rights and interests
guaranteed for minority and marginalized communities and make
recommendations for revision upon necessary review on the basis of
periodic national census and human development index.

(2) The National Inclusion Commission may so delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, any of its
members or any employee of the Government of Nepal as to be exercised and
complied with subject to the specified conditions.

(3) Other functions, duties and powers and other relevant matters of the
National Inclusion Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

260. Powers to establish offices in States: The National Inclusion Rights Commission
may, as required, establish its offices in States.

261. Indigenous Nationalities Commission:

(1) There shall be an Indigenous
Nationalities Commission of Nepal, consisting of a Chairperson and a maximum of
four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the Indigenous Nationalities
Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the
Indigenous Nationalities Commission shall be six years from the date of
appointment.

(4) Other matters relating to the qualification for the Chairperson and
members of the Indigenous Nationalities Commission, circumstances in which
their offices fall vacant, their remuneration and conditions of service and the
functions, duties and powers of this Commission shall be as provided for inthe
Federal law.

262. Madhesi Commission:

(1) There shall be a Madhesi Commission of Nepal,
consisting of a Chairperson and a maximum of four other members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the Madhesi Commission.
(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the Madhesi
Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) Other matters relating to the qualification for the Chairperson and
members of the Madhesi Commission, circumstances in which their offices fall
vacant, their remuneration and conditions of service and the functions, duties and
powers of this Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

263. Tharu Commission:

(1) There shall be a Tharu Commission of Nepal, consisting
of a Chairperson and a maximum of four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the Tharu Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the Tharu
Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Other matters relating to the qualification for the Chairperson and
members of the Tharu Commission, circumstances in which their offices fall
vacant, their remuneration and conditions of service and the functions, duties and
powers of this Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

264. Muslim Commission:

(1) There shall be a Muslim Commission of Nepal,
consisting of a Chairperson and a maximum of four other members.

(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the Muslim Commission.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the Muslim
Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.

(4) Other matters relating to the qualification for the Chairperson and
members of the Muslim Commission, circumstances in which their offices fall
vacant, their remuneration and conditions of service and the functions, duties and
powers of this Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

265. Review of Commissions: The Federal Parliament shall, after ten years of the
commencement of this Constitution, review the Commissions formed under this
Part.

Part-28 Provisions Relating to National Security

Provisions Relating to National Security
266. National Security Council:

(1) There shall be a National Security Council for
making recommendation to the Government of Nepal, Council of Ministers for the
formulation of a policy on overall national interest, security and defence of Nepal,
and for the mobilization and control of the Nepal Army, which shall consist of the
following as the Chairperson and members:

(a) The Prime Minister -Chairperson
(b) Minister for Defence, Government of Nepal -Member
(c) Minister for Home, Government of Nepal -Member
(d) Minister for Foreign Affairs, Government of Nepal -Member
(e) Minister for Finance, Government of Nepal -Member
(f) Chief Secretary of Government of Nepal -Member
(g) Commander-in-Chief, Nepal Army -Member

(2) The secretary at the Ministry of Defence shall act as the member
secretary of the National Security Council.

(3) The National Security Council shall submit its annual report to the
President, and the President shall cause the report to be laid through the Prime
Minister before the Federal Parliament.

(4) Other matters relating to the National Security Council shall be as
provided by the Federal law.

267. Provisions relating to Nepal Army:

(1) There shall be an organization of the
Nepal Army in Nepal, which is inclusive and committed to this Constitution, for
the safeguarding of independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and national
unity of Nepal.

(2) The President shall be the supreme commander-in-chief of the Nepal
Army.

(3) Entry of women,Dalit, indigenous people, indigenous
nationalities,Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Pichhada class and backward region
citizens into the Nepal Army shall, on the basis of principles of equality and
inclusion, be ensured by the Federal law.

(4) The Government of Nepal may also mobilize the Nepal Army in
other works including development, construction and disaster management works,
as provided for in the Federal law.

(5) The President shall, on recommendation of the Council of Ministers,
appoint the Commander-in-Chief and remove him or her from office.

(6) The President shall, on recommendation of the National Security
Council and pursuant to a decision of the Government of Nepal, Council of
Ministers, declare the mobilization of the Nepal Army in cases where a grave
emergency arises in regard to the sovereignty or territorial integrity of Nepal or the
security of any part thereof, by war, external aggression, armed rebellion or
extreme economic disarray. A declaration of the mobilization of the Nepal Army
must be ratified by the House of Representatives within one month after the date
of such declaration.

(7) Other matters pertaining to the Nepal Army shall be in accordance
with law.

268. Provisions Relating to Nepal Police, Armed Police Force, Nepal and National
Investigation Department:

(1) The Federation shall have Nepal Police, Armed
Police Force, Nepal and National Investigation Department.

(2) Each State shall have a State police organization.

(3) Matters relating to the Operation, supervision and coordination of
functions to be discharged by the Nepal Police and the State police shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

(4) Other matters relating to the Nepal Police, Armed Police Force,
Nepal and National Investigation Department shall be as provided by the Federal
law.

Part-29 Provisions Relating to Political Parties

Provisions Relating to Political Parties

269. Formation, registration and operation of political parties:

(1) Persons who are committed to common political ideology, philosophy and program may, subject to
laws made under sub-clause (c) of clause (2) of Article 17, form and operate
political parties, and generate, or cause to be generated, publicity in order to secure
support and cooperation from the general public for their ideology, philosophy and
program or carry out other necessary activity for this purpose.

(2) A political party formed in accordance with clause (1) must register
the party with the Election Commission upon fulfilment of the procedures
established by law.

(3) A petition to be made for the purpose of registration of a party in
accordance with clause (2) must be accompanied by the constitution and manifesto
of the concerned political party and such other documents as required by the
Federal law.

(4) For a petition to be made for the registration of a party in accordance
with clause (2), the political party must fulfil the following conditions:

(a) its constitution and rules must be democratic,

(b) its constitution must provide for election of each of the officebearers
of the party at the Federal and State levels at least once in
every five years;provided that nothing shall bar the making of provision by the
constitution of a political party to hold such election within six
months in the event of failure to hold election of its office-bearers
within five years because of a special circumstance.

(c) there must be a provision of such inclusive representation inits
executive committees at various levels as may be reflecting the
diversity of Nepal.

(5) If the name, objective, insignia or flag of a political party is of such a
nature as to jeopardize the religious and communal unity of the country or to
fragment the country, that party shall not be registered.

270. Prohibition on imposition of restrictions on political parties:

(1) Any law,
arrangement or decision so made as to impose any restriction on the formation and
operation of a political party and on the generation of publicity in order to secure
support and cooperation from the general public for the ideology, philosophy and
program of the party in accordance with Article 269 shall be deemed to be
inconsistent with this Constitution and shall, ipso facto, be void.

(2) Any law, arrangement or decision so made as to allow for
participation or involvement of only a single political party or persons having
similar political ideology, philosophy or program in the elections or in the political
system of, or in the conduct of governance of, the country shall be deemed to be
inconsistent with this Constitution and shall, ipso facto, be void.

271. Registration required for securing recognition for the purpose of contesting
elections as political party:

(1) Every political party that is registered in
accordance with Article 269 and intends to secure recognition from the Election
Commission for the purposes of elections must be registered with the Election
Commission in fulfilment of the procedures set forth in the Federal law.

(2) The political party must submit a yearly audit report in addition to
the matters set forth in clause (3) of Article 269 along with an application to be
made for the purpose of clause (1) and also fulfil the terms set forth in clause (4) of
that Article.

272. Other provisions relating to political parties: Provisions relating to the
formation, registration, operation and facilities of political parties and other matters
pertaining thereto shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

Part-30 Emergency Power

Emergency Power

273. Emergency power:

(1) If a grave emergency arises in regard to the sovereignty,
territorial integrity of Nepal or the security of any part thereof, by war, external
aggression, armed rebellion, extreme economic disarray, natural calamity or
epidemic, the President may declare or order a state of emergency in respect of the
whole of Nepal or of any specified part thereof.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), if there arises a
grave emergency in a State by a natural calamity or epidemic, the concerned State
Government may request the Government of Nepal to declare or order a state of
emergency in respect of the whole of the State or of any specified part thereof, in
accordance with this Article.

(3) Every declaration or order made in accordance with clause (1) shall be laid before both Houses of the Federal Parliament for approval within one month after the date of issuance of such proclamation or order.

(4) If a declaration or order laid for approval in accordance with clause (3) is approved by at least two-thirds majority of the total number of the then members of both Houses of the Federal Parliament, the declaration or order shall continue in force for a period of three months from the date of its issuance.

(5) If a declaration or order laid for approval in accordance with clause (4) is not approved in accordance with clause (3), the declaration or order shall ipso facto be inoperative.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, prior to expiration of the period mentioned in clause (4), a motion to extend the period of the declaration or order of state of emergency as mentioned in clause (1) for another period not exceeding three months may be submitted to the Federal Parliament.

(7) If a motion mentioned in clause (6) is passed by at least two-thirds
majority of the total number of the then members of both Houses of the Federal
Parliament, the declaration or order shall continue in force for the period
mentioned in that motion.

(8) In the event of dissolution of the House of Representatives, the
powers exercisable by the Federal Parliament in accordance with clauses (3), (4),
(6) and (7) shall be exercised by the National Assembly.

(9) After the making of a declaration or order of a state of emergency in
accordance with clause (1), the President may issue such orders as are necessary to
meet the exigencies. Orders so issued shall apply as of law so long as the state of
emergency is in operation.

(10) At the time of making a declaration or order of a state of emergency
in accordance with clause (9), the fundamental rights as provided in Part-3 may be
suspended until the declaration or order is in operation.
Provided that Article 16, sub-clauses (c) and (d) of clause (2) of Article 17,
Article 18, clause (2) of Article 19, Articles 20, 21, 22 and 24, clause (1) of Article
26, Articles 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, clauses (1) and (2) of Article 36, Articles 38 and
39, clauses (2) and (3) of Article 40, Articles 41, 42, 43 and 45,the right to
constitutional remedy in relation to such Articles pursuant to Article 46 and the
right to the remedy of habeas corpus shall not be suspended.

(11) If any Article of this Constitution is suspended pursuant to clause

(10), no petition may lie in any court for the enforcement of the fundamental right
conferred by that Article nor may a question be raised in any Court in that respect.

(12) If, during the continuance of a declaration or order under this
Article, any injury is caused to a person from any act done by any official in bad
faith, the victim may, within three months from the date of termination of that
declaration or order, file a petition for compensation for such injury. If such
petition is made, the court may order for compensation by, and punish, the
perpetrator as provided for in the Federal law

(13) The President may, at any time, withdraw a declaration or order of a
state of emergency made in accordance with this Article.

Part-31 Amendment to the Constitution

Amendment to the Constitution

274. Amendment to Constitution:

(1) No amendment shall be made to this
Constitution in manner to be prejudicial to the sovereignty, territorial integrity,
independence of Nepal and sovereignty vested in the people.

(2) Subject to clause (1) and other Articles of this Constitution, a Bill to
amend or repeal any Article of this Constitution may be introduced in either House
of the Federal Parliament.

Provided that clause (1) shall not be amended.
(3) A Bill introduced pursuant to clause (2) shall be publicly published
for information to the general public within thirty days of its introduction in the
concerned House.

(4) If a Bill introduced pursuant to clause (2) is related with the
alteration in the borders of any State or matters set forth in Schedule-6, the Speaker
or the Chairperson of the concerned House must send that Bill to the State
Assembly for its consent, within thirty days after its introduction in the Federal
Parliament.

(5) The concerned State Assembly must, by a majority of the total
number of its the then members, accept or reject the Bill presented for its consent
pursuant to clause (4) and give information thereof to the FederalParliament within
three months.
Provided that if any State Assembly is not in existence, such Bill must be
either accepted or rejected within three months after the date of holding of the first
meeting following the formation of that State Assembly.

(6) In the event of failure to give information of acceptance or rejection
of such Bill within the period set forth in clause (5), nothing shall prevent the
House of the Federal Parliament in which the Bill was originated from proceeding
with the Bill.

(7) If the State Assembly, by its majority, givesa notice of rejection of
such Bill to the concerned House of the Federal Parliament within the period under
clause (5), the Bill shall be inoperative.

(8) A Bill which does not require the consent of the State Assembly or a
Bill accepted by a majority of the State Assembly under clause (5) must be passed
by at least two-thirds majority of the total number of the then members of both
Houses of the Federal Parliament.

(9) A Bill passed under clause (8) shall be presented to the President for
assent.

(10) The President shall give assent to a Bill presented under clause (5),
within fifteen days from the date of its receipt, and the Constitution shall get
amended from the date of assent.

Part-32 Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous

275. Provisions relating to referendum: (1) If a decision is made by a two-thirds
majority of the total number of the then members of the Federal Parliament that it
is necessary to hold a referendum with respect to any matter of national
importance, decision on that matter may be taken by way of referendum.
(2) Matters relating to referendum and other relevant matters shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.

276. Pardons: The President may, in accordance with law, grant pardons, suspend,
commute or remit any sentence passed by any Court, judicial or quasi-judicial
body or administrative authority or body.

277. Titles, honours and decorations: (1) The President shall confer titles, honours
and decorations to be conferred on behalf of the State.
(2) No citizen of Nepal may, without the approval of the Government of
Nepal, accept any title, honour or decoration from any foreign government.

278. Power to make treaties: (1) The Federation shall have the power to make treaties
or agreements.
(2) In making a treaty or agreement on a matter falling within the list of
State power, the Government of Nepal must consult the concerned State.
(3) A State Council of Ministers may, with the consent of the
Government of Nepal, make contractual agreements on financial and industrial
matters.

279. Ratification of, accession to, acceptance of, or approval of, treaties or
agreements: (1) The ratification of, accession to, acceptance of, or approval of,
treaties or agreements to which Nepal or the Government of Nepal is to become a
party shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
(2) Any law to be made pursuant to clause (1) shall, inter alia, require
that the ratification of, accession to, acceptance of, or approval of, treaties or
agreements on the following subjects must be made by a majority of two-thirds of
the total number of the then members of both Houses of the Federal Parliament:
(a) peace and friendship,
(b) defence and strategic alliance,
(c) boundaries of the State of Nepal, and
(d) natural resources, and the distribution of their uses.
Provided that, out of the treaties or agreements under sub-clauses (a) and
(d), if any treaty or agreement is of an ordinary nature, which does not affect the
nation extensively, seriously or in the long term, the ratification of, accession to,
acceptance of, or approval of, such treaty or agreement may be made by a simple
majority of the members present in a meeting of the House of Representatives.
(3) After the commencement of this Constitution, unless a treaty or
agreement is ratified, acceded to, accepted or approved in accordance with this
Article, such treaty or agreement shall not apply to the Government of Nepal or
Nepal.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clauses (1) and (2), no treaty
or agreement may be concluded in detrimental to the territorial integrity of Nepal.
280. Special provision relating to discharge of functions of President: If the offices
of both the President and the Vice-President fall vacant in accordance with this
Constitution, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall discharge the
functions required to be performed by the President under this Constitution until
election to the President or Vice-President is held and he or she assumes office.

281. Appraisal and review of special rights: The Government of Nepal shall make
appraisal and review of the implementation of special rights of the women and
Dalit community and impacts thereof, on the basis of human development index,
concurrently with a national census to be held in every ten years.

282. Ambassadors and special emissaries: (1) The President may, on the basis of the
principle of inclusion, appoint Nepalese ambassadors and special emissaries for
any specific purposes.
(2) The President shall receive letters of credentials from foreign
ambassadors and diplomatic representatives.

283. Appointments to be made in accordance with inclusive principle:
Appointments to offices of Constitutional Organs and Bodies shall be made in
accordance with the inclusive principle.
284. Provisions relating to Constitutional Council: (1) There shall be a Constitutional
Council for making recommendations for appointment of the Chief Justice and
Chiefs and officials of the Constitutional Bodies in accordance with this
Constitution, which shall consist of the following as the Chairperson and members:

(a) The Prime Minister -Chairperson
(b) The Chief Justice -Member
(c) The Speaker of the House of Representatives -Member
(d) The Chairperson of the National Assembly -Member
(e) Leader of Opposition Party in the House of Representatives

-Member
(f) Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives -Member
(2) While making a recommendation for appointment to the office of the
Chief Justice, the Constitutional Council shall include the Minister for Law and
Justice of the Government of Nepal, as its member.

(3) The Constitutional Council must make a recommendation for
appointment under this Constitution before one month of the vacation of the office
of the Chief Justice or a chief or official of a Constitutional Body.
Provided that if such office falls vacant because of death or resignation, it
may so make recommendation for appointment that the office is fulfilled within
one month after the date of vacancy.

(4) Other functions, duties and powers of the Constitutional Council and
rules of procedures on the appointment of the Chief Justice or chiefs or officials of
Constitutional Bodies shall be as provided for in the Federal law.

(5) The Chief Secretary of the Government of Nepal shall act as the
secretary of the Constitutional Council
.
285. Constitution of government service: (1) The Government of Nepal may, in order
to run the administration of the country, constitute the Federal civil service and
such other Federal government services as may be required. The constitution,
operation and conditions of service of such services shall be as provided for in the
Federal Act.

(2) Positions in the Federal civil service as well as all Federal
government services shall be filled through competitive examinations, on the basis
of open and proportional inclusive principle.
(3) The State Council of Ministers, Village Executives and Municipal
Executives may by law constitute and operate various government services as
required for the operation of their administration.
286. Election Constituency Delimitation Commission: (1) The Government of Nepal
may constitute an Election Constituency Delimitation Commission, to determine
election constituencies for the purpose of election to the members of the Federal
Parliament and members of the State Assemblies in accordance with this
Constitution, which shall consist of the following as the Chairperson and members:

(a) Retired Judge of the Supreme Court -Chairperson
(b) One Geographer -Member
(c) One sociologist or demographer -Member
(d) One administration expert or jurist -Member
(e) Gazetted special class officer of the
Government of Nepal
-Membersecretary

(2) The term of office of the Election Constituency Delimitation
Commission shall be as prescribed at the time of its constitution.
(3) A person shall be qualified to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the Election Constituency Delimitation Commission if he or she
possesses the following qualification:
(a) holding at least bachelor’s degree in related subject from a
recognized university,
(b) having attained the age of forty-five years, and
(c) having high moral character.
(4) The office of the Chairperson or a member of the Election
Constituency Delimitation Commission shall be vacant in any of the following
circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing,
(b) if he or she is removed by the Government of Nepal, Council of
Ministers,
(c) if he or she dies.
(5) While determining election constituencies pursuant to this Article,
the Election Constituency Delimitation Commission shall so determine the
constituencies, having regard to population and geography as the basis of
representation, and as to ensure that the ratio between the geography, population
and number of members of such election constituencies is equal, so far as
practicable.
191
(6) While delimitating election constituencies pursuant to clause (5),
regard must be had to, inter alia, the density of population, geographical
specificity, administrative and transportation convenience, community and cultural
aspects of the constituencies.
(7) No question may be raised in any court on any matter of the
determination, or review, of election constituencies made by the Election
Constituency Delimitation Commission.
(8) The Election Constituency Delimitation Commission shall submit a
report on the works it has performed to the Government of Nepal.
(9) The Government of Nepal, Council of Ministers, shall lay the report
received pursuant to clause (8) before the Federal Parliament and send it to the
Election Commission for implementation.
(10) The Election Constituency Delimitation Commission shall determine
its rules of procedures itself.
(11) The remuneration and facilities of the Chairperson and the members
of the Election Constituency Delimitation Commission shall be similar to those of
the Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners of the Election
Commission, respectively.
(12) The election constituencies delimited in accordance with clause (5)
must be reviewed in every twenty years.
(13) The Government of Nepal shall provide such employees as may be
required for the Election Constituency Delimitation Commission.
287. Language Commission: (1) The Government of Nepal shall, no later than one
year of the commencement of this Constitution, constitute a Language
Commission comprising representation of States.
(2) The Language Commission shall consist of one Chairperson and a
required number of members.

(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the Language
Commission shall be six years from the date of their appointment. They may not
be reappointed.
(4) A person shall be qualified to be appointed as the Chairperson or a
member of the Language Commission if he or she possesses the following
qualification:
(a) holding master’s degree in related subject from a recognized
university,
(b) having gained at least twenty years of experience in the fields of
study, teaching and research on various languages of Nepal,
(c) having completed the age of forty-five years, and
(d) having high moral character.
(5) The office of the Chairperson or a member of the Language
Commission shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:
(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing,
(b) if he or she is removed by the Government of Nepal, Council of
Ministers,
(c) if he completes the age of sixty five years,
(d) if he or she dies.
(6) The functions, duties and powers of the Language Commission shall
be as follows:
(a) to determine the criteria to be fulfilled for the recognition of the
official language and make recommendations on languages to the
Government of Nepal,
(b) to make recommendations to the Government of Nepal, on the
measures to be adopted for the protection, promotion and
development of languages,

(c) to measure the levels of development of mother tongues and make
suggestions to the Government of Nepal, on the potentiality of their
use in education,
(d) to study, research and monitor languages.
(7) The Language Commission shall complete its task under sub-clause
(a) of clause (6) no later than five years after the date of its constitution.
(8) The Government of Nepal may, in coordination with a State
Government, establish a branch of the Language Commission in that State.
(9) The other functions, duties, powers and rules of procedures of the
Language Commission shall be as provided for in the Federal law.
288. Capital: (1) The capital of Nepal shall be situated in Kathmandu.
(2) The capital of a State under this Constitution shall be as decided by a
two-thirds majority of the number of the then members of the concerned State
Assembly.
(3) The business of a State shall be conducted through the place as
specified by the Government of Nepal until decision is made in accordance with
clause (2).
289. Special provision relating to citizenship of officials: (1) In order for a person to
be elected, nominated or appointed to the office of President, Vice-President,
Prime Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Chief of
State, Chief Minister, Speaker of a State Assembly and chief of a security body,
the person must have obtained the citizenship of Nepal by descent.
(2) A person who has obtained the citizenship of Nepal by descent, a
person who has obtained the naturalized citizenship of Nepal or a person who has
obtained the citizenship of Nepal by birth shall also be qualified for the office of a
constitutional body other than that mentioned in clause (1).
194
Provided that the person must have resided in Nepal for at least ten years in
the case of a person who has obtained the naturalized citizenship of Nepal, and for
at least five years in the case of a person who has obtained the citizenship of Nepal
by birth or who has obtained the naturalized citizenship of Nepal in accordance
with clause (6) of Article 11.
290. Provisions relating to Guthi (trusts): (1) The Federal Parliament shall make
necessary laws in relation to the rights of the trust and the farmers enjoying
possessory rights over trust lands in a manner not to be prejudicial to the basic
norms of the trusts.
(2) Other matters relating to trusts shall be as provided by the federal
law.
291. Not to be qualified for appointment: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained
elsewhere in this Constitution, a citizen of Nepal who has obtained a foreign
permanent residence permit shall not be qualified for election, nomination or
appointment to an office to be elected, nominated or appointed pursuant to this
Constitution.
Provided that nothing shall prevent electing, nominating or appointing a
person who has renounced such foreign permanent residence permit to such office
after the expiry of a period of at least three months.
(2) Other matters relating to the citizens of Nepal who have obtained
foreign permanent residence permits as mentioned in clause (1) shall be as
provided for in the Federal law.
292. Provisions relating to parliamentary hearings: (1) Parliamentary hearings shall
be conducted as to appointments to the offices of the Chief Justice and Judges of
the Supreme Court, members of the Judicial Council, chiefs and members of
Constitutional Bodies, who are appointed on the recommendation of the
195
Constitutional Council under this Constitution, and to the offices of ambassadors,
as provided for in the Federal law.
(2) For the purposes of clause (1), there shall be formed a fifteenmember
joint committee consisting of members of both Houses of the Federal
Parliament, in accordance with the Federal law.
(3) No member of the joint committee under clause (2) shall practice
law in the Supreme Court during that term of the Federal Parliament.
293. Monitoring of functioning of Constitutional Bodies: The chiefs and officials of
the Constitutional Bodies must be accountable and responsible to the Federal
Parliament. The committees of the House of Representatives may monitor and
evaluate the functioning, including reports, of the Constitutional Bodies, other
than the National Human Rights Commission, and give necessary direction or
advice.
294. Annual reports of Constitutional Bodies: (1) Every Constitutional Body under
this Constitution shall submit an annual report of its functioning to the President,
and the President shall cause that report to be laid through the Prime Minister
before the Federal Parliament.
(2) The matters to be set out in the annual report under clause (1) shall
be as provided for in the Federal law.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), a Constitutional
Body may prepare a separate report in relation to the functioning of each State and
submit it to the Chief of State.

 

Part-33 Transitional Provisions

Transitional Provisions

295. Constitution of Federal Commission:

(1) The Government of Nepal may
constitute a Federal Commission for making suggestions on matters relating to the
boundaries of States.

(2) The names of the States under clause (3) of Article 56 shall be set by
a two thirds majority of the total number of members of the concerned State
Assemblies.

(3) The Government of Nepal shall constitute a commission for the
determination of the number and boundaries of Village Bodies, Municipalities and
Special, Protected or Autonomous Regions to be formed under clauses (4) and (5)
of Article 56. The commission must determine the number and boundaries of the
Village Bodies, Municipalities and Special, Protected or Autonomous Regions in
accordance with the criteria set by the Government of Nepal.

(4) The commission under clause (3) shall be constituted no later than
six months of the date of commencement of this Constitution. Its term shall be one
year.

296. Constituent Assembly to be converted into Legislature-Parliament:

(1) The Constituent Assembly existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution
shall ipso facto be converted into the Legislature-Parliament after the
commencement of this Constitution, and the term of such Legislature-Parliament
shall exist until 7 Magha 2074.Provided that if an election is held to the House of Representatives set forth
in this Constitution prior to the expiration of that term, the Legislature-Parliament
shall continue to exist until the day before the day specified for the filing of
nominations of candidates for that election.

(2) The Bills under consideration of the Legislature-Parliament at the
time of commencement of this Constitution shall ipso facto be transferred to the
Legislature-Parliament set forth in clause (1).

(3) The Legislature-Parliament set forth in clause (1) shall perform the
business required to be performed by the Federal Parliament in accordance with
this Constitution until election to the House of Representatives is held pursuant to
this Constitution.

(4) The legislative power of the State Assembly with respect of matters
set forth in Schedule-6 shall, upon the commencement of this Constitution, be
vested in the Legislature-Parliament set forth in clause (1) until the State
Assembly is formed. Any law so made shall be inoperative in relation to that State
after one year of the date of formation of the State Assembly set forth in this
Constitution.

(5) The Legislature-Parliament Secretariat, its Secretary General,
Secretary and employees existing at the time of commencement of this
Constitution shall, subject to the conditions of service in force at the time of their
appointment, exist in the Federal Parliament Secretariat set forth in this
Constitution.

(6) Where the Legislature-Parliament is in recess at the time of
commencement of this Constitution, the President shall summon its session no
later than seven days after the date of commencement of this Constitution. The
President shall thereafter summon a session of the Legislature-Parliament from
time to time.

297. Provisions relating to the President and the Vice-President: (1) The President
and the Vice-President existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution
shall continue to hold their respective offices until other President and VicePresident
are elected in accordance with this Article.

(2) The Legislature-Parliament set forth in clause (1) of Article 296
shall, on the basis of political understanding, elect the President and the VicePresident,
no later than one month after the date of the commencement of this
Constitution where the Legislature-Parliament is not in recess at the time of
commencement of this Constitution and after the date on which the session is
summoned in accordance with clause (6) of Article 296 where the LegislatureParliament
is in recess.

(3) In the event of failure to have an understanding under clause (2), the
President and the Vice-President must be elected by a majority of all the then
members of the Legislature-Parliament.

(4) If the office of the President or Vice-President elected in accordance
with clause (2) or (3) falls vacant for any reason, the President or Vice-President
shall be elected by the Legislature-Parliament in accordance with this Article until
the Federal Parliament is formed.

(5) The term of office of the President or Vice-President elected in
accordance with this Article shall continue to exist until another President or VicePresident
elected by an electoral college set forth in Article 62 assumes office.

(6) The office of the President or Vice-President elected in accordance
with this Article shall become vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if the President tenders resignation in writing to the Vice-President
and the Vice-President, before the President,

(b) if a motion of impeachment against him or her is passed in
accordance with clause (7),

(c) if another President or Vice-President elected by an electoral college
set forth in Article 62 assumes office,

(d) if he or she dies.

(7) At least one fourth of the total number of the then members of the
Legislature-Parliament set forth in clause (1) of Article 296 may move a motion of
impeachment against the President or Vice-President elected in accordance with this Article on the ground of serious violation of this Constitution and law. If the
motion is passed by at least two thirds majority of the total number of the then
members of the Legislature-Parliament, he or she shall relive of his or her office

298. Provisions relating to formation of Council of Ministers:

(1) The Council of
Ministers existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall continue
to exist until the Council of Ministers set forth in clause (2) is formed.

(2) The Prime Minister shall, on the basis of political understanding, be
elected no later than seven days after the date of the commencement of this
Constitution where the Legislature-Parliament is not in recess at the time of
commencement of this Constitution, and after the date on which the session of the
Legislature-Parliament summoned in accordance with clause (6) of Article 296
commences where the Legislature-Parliament is in recess, and a Council of
Ministers shall be formed under his or her chairpersonship.

(3) In the event of failure to have an understanding under clause (2), the
Prime Minister shall be elected by a majority of all the then members of the
Legislature-Parliament.

(4) The composition and allocation of portfolios of the Council of
Ministers to be formed in accordance with this Article shall be made through
mutual understanding.

(5) The Council of Ministers to be formed in accordance with this
Article shall consist of a Deputy Prime Minister and other Ministers, as required.

(6) The Prime Minister appointed in accordance with this Article shall,
in appointing Ministers in accordance with clause (5), appoint Ministers from
amongst the members of the Legislature-Parliament, on the recommendation of
the concerned party.

(7) The Prime Minister and other Ministers appointed in accordance
with this Article shall be collectively responsible to the Legislature-Parliament and the Ministers shall be individually responsible to the Prime Minister and the
Legislature- Parliament for the work of their respective Ministries.

(8) The office of the Prime Minister appointed in accordance with this
Article shall be vacant in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the President,

(b) if a vote of no-confidence is passed against him or her or a vote of
confidence is not passed in accordance with clause (14),

(c) if he or she ceases to be a member of the Legislature-Parliament,

(d) if he or she dies.

(9) The office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister, Minister of State
and Assistance Minister appointed in accordance with this Article shall be vacant
in any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she tenders resignation in writing to the Prime Minister,

(b) if the Prime Minister is removed from office in accordance with
clause (8),

(c) if he or she is removed from office by the Prime Minister on the
recommendation or advice of the concerned party,

(d) if he or she dies.

(10) Even though the office of the Prime Minister falls vacant under
clause (8), the same Council of Ministers shall continue to act until another
Council of Ministers is constituted.

(11) If the Prime Minister appointed in accordance with this Article dies,
the Deputy Prime Minister or senior-most Minister shall act as the Prime Minister
until another Prime Minister is appointed.

(12) The Prime Minister appointed in accordance with this Article may,
whenever he or she considers necessary or appropriate to show/clarify that he or
she has confidence from the Legislature-Parliament, table a resolution to that
effect in the Legislature-Parliament for the vote of confidence.

(13) At least one-fourth of the total number of the then members of the
Legislature-Parliament may table in writing a motion of no-confidence against the
Prime Minister appointed in accordance with this Article.
Provided that a motion of no confidence shall not be tabled more than once
in six moths’ period against the same Prime Minister appointed in accordance with
this Article.

(14) A motion tabled under clauses (12) or (13) shall be decided by a
majority of the total number of the then members of the Legislature Parliament.

(15) The Government of Nepal shall, after the commencement of this
Constitution, exercise the powers of a State until the Council of Ministers of the
State set forth in this Constitution is formed.

299. Provisions relating to Speaker and Deputy Speaker:

(1) The Speaker and Deputy Speaker existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall
continue to hold their respective offices until another Speaker and Deputy Speaker
is elected pursuant to this Constitution.

(2) The members of the Legislature-Parliament shall, on the basis of
political understanding, elect one Speaker and one Deputy Speaker from
themselves no later than twenty days after the date of the commencement of this
Constitution where the Legislature-Parliament is not in recess at the time of
commencement of this Constitution, and after the date on which the session of the
Legislature-Parliament is summoned in accordance with clause (6) of Article 296
where the Legislature-Parliament is in recess.

(3) In the event of failure to have an understanding under clause (2), a
member of the Legislature-Parliament who commands a majority of all the then
members of the Legislature-Parliament shall be deemed to be elected as the
Speaker or Deputy Speaker.

(4) In holding electing in accordance with clause (2) or (3), the Speaker
and the Deputy Speaker shall be members representing different political parties in
the Legislature-Parliament.

(5) In discharging his or her functions in accordance with this
Constitution, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall so discharge functions in the
capacity of a neutral person without standing for or against any political party
whatsoever.

(6) The office of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become vacant in
any of the following circumstances:

(a) if he or she resigns in writing,

(b) if he or she ceases to be a member of the Legislature-Parliament,

(c) if a resolution is passed by a majority of at least two-thirds of the
total number of the members of the Legislature-Parliament to the
effect that his or her conduct is not compatible with his or her office,

(d) if he or she dies.

(7) The Deputy Speaker or another member shall preside over a meeting
at which deliberations are to be held on a resolution that the conduct of the
Speaker of the Legislature-Parliament is not compatible with his or her office, and
the Speaker may take part and vote in the deliberations on such resolution.

(8) Other procedures on the election to the Speaker and Deputy Speaker
and procedures on the moving and passage of a motion that the Speaker or Deputy
Speaker has committed conduct not compatible with his or her office shall be as
provided by the then prevailing rules of the Legislature-Parliament.

300. Provisions relating to Judiciary:

(1) The Supreme Court, Constituent Assembly
Court, Appellate Courts and District Courts existing at the time of commencement
of this Constitution shall continue to exist until the structure of Judiciary set forth
in this Constitution is set up. Nothing in this Constitution shall be deemed to bar
the settlement by respective Courts of the cases already filed in such Courts prior to the commencement of this Constitution and of the cases to be filed after the
commencement of this Constitution.

(2) The Chief Justice and Judges of the Supreme Court, Chief Judges
and Judges of the Appellate Courts and Judges of the Districts Courts at the time
of commencement of this Constitution shall be deemed to have been appointed
under this Constitution.

(3) The High Courts set forth in Article 139 shall be established no later
than one year after the date of commencement of this Constitution. The Appellate
Courts existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall be
dissolved after the establishment of such Courts.

(4) After the establishment of the High Courts in accordance with clause
(3), the cases sub judice in the Appellate Courts shall be transferred to such High
Courts as specified by the Government of Nepal, in consultation with the Judicial
Council, by notification in the Nepal Gazette.

(5) After the establishment of the High Courts in accordance with clause
(3), the Chief Justice shall, on recommendation of the Judicial Council, post the
Chief Judges and Judges of the Appellate Courts who are holding office at the
time of commencement of this Constitution to the offices of the Chief Judges and
Judges of the High Courts.
(6) The Additional Judges of the Appellate Courts who are holding
office at the time of commencement of this Constitution may continue to hold
office until the term specified at the time of their appointment.

(7) The cases on criminal offences punishable by imprisonment for a
term of more than one year and sub judice in any body other than a Court at the
time of commencement of this Constitution shall, after the commencement of this
Constitution, be transferred to the concerned District Court.

301. Provisions relating to Constitutional Bodies and officials thereof: (1) The
Constitutional Bodies which are existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution and provided in this Constitution shall be deemed to have beenformed under this Constitution, and nothing shall be deemed to bar the settlement
of the matters under consideration of such Bodies subject to this Constitution.

(2) The chiefs or officials of the Constitutional Bodies holding office at
the time of commencement of this Constitution shall be deemed to have been
appointed in accordance with this Constitution and shall continue to hold their
respective offices subject to the conditions of services at the time of their
appointments.

(3) The officials holding office in the Commission for the Investigation
of the Abuse of Authority and the Public Service Commission, at the time of
commencement of this Constitution, in excess of the number specified in this
Constitution, shall continue to hold their respective offices subject to the
conditions of services at the time of their appointments.

302. Formation and operation of government services at State and Local levels: (1)
The Government of Nepal shall make necessary provisions for the delivery of
services at the State and Local levels.

(2) The Government of Nepal may, in making provisions under clause
(1), arrange for the delivery of services by making adjustment of the employees
serving in the government services at the time of commencement of this
Constitution with the Federal, State and Local levels in accordance with law.

303. Provisions relating to Local Bodies:

(1) The Local Bodies existing at the time of
Commencement of this Constitution shall continue to exist until the determination
of the number and areas of the Local level in accordance with this Constitution.

(2) Election to the officials of the Local Bodies existing under clause (1)
shall be held in accordance with law.

(3) The officials of the Local Bodies elected in accordance with clause
(2) shall continue to hold office until election to the Local level is held in
accordance with this Constitution.

304. Existing laws to remain in force:

(1) The Nepal laws in force at the time of
commencement of this Constitution shall continue to be in force until such laws
are repealed or amended.Provided that any law which is inconsistent with this Constitution shall ipso
facto be invalid to the extent of such inconsistency, after one year of the date on
which the first session of the Federal Parliament set forth in this Constitution is
held.

(2) Acts relating to peace process under the Interim Constitution of
Nepal, 2007 (2063) shall be deemed to have been done under this Constitution.

305. Power to remove difficulties: If any difficulty arises in connection with the
implementation of this Constitution until the commencement of the first session of
the Federal Parliament, upon being elected in accordance with this Constitution,
the President may, on the recommendation of the Government of Nepal, Council
of Ministers, issue necessary orders to remove such difficulty; and such orders
must be submitted to the Legislature-Parliament or Federal Parliament, held
immediately after the issue such orders, for approval.

 

 

Part-34 Definitions and Interpretations

Definitions and Interpretations

306. Definitions and interpretations:

(1) Unless the subject or the context otherwise
requires, in this Constitution,-

(a) “minorities” means ethnic, linguistic and religious groups whose
population is less than the percentage specified by the Federal law,
and includes groups that have their distinct ethnic, religious or
linguistic characteristics, aspirations to protect such features and
subjected to discrimination and oppression,

(b) “law” means a Federal law, State law and Local law,

(c) “Article” means an article of this Constitution,

(d) “Municipality” means and includes a Municipal Corporation and
Sub-municipal Corporation.

(e) “citizen” means a citizen of Nepal,

(f) “State” means the area and form of a federal unit of Nepal divided
into the Federal units in accordance with this Constitution,

(g) “remuneration” means and includes salary, allowance, pension and
any other form of emolument and facility,

(h) “state power” means the power relating to the Executive, Legislative
and Judiciary of the state, and includes residual power.

(i) “Bill” means a draft of amendment to the Constitution or of an Act
which has been introduced in the Federal Parliament or a State
Assembly,

(j) “Federation” means the federal level that is the apex unit of the
federal structure,

(k) “Federal Units” means the Federation, State and Local levels,

(l) “Constitutional Bodies” means the Commission for the Investigation
of Abuse of Authority, Auditor General, Public Service
Commission, Election Commission, National Human Rights
Commission, National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission,
National Women Commission, National Dalit Commission, National
Inclusion Commission, Indigenous Nationalities Commission,
Madhesi Commission, Tharu Commission and Muslim Commission,
(m) “marginalized” means communities that are made politically,
economically and socially backward, are unable to enjoy services
and facilities because of discrimination and oppression and of
geographical remoteness or deprived thereof and are in lower status
than the human development standards mentioned in Federal law,
and includes highly marginalized groups and groups on the verge of
extinction,

(n) “Local level” means the Village Bodies, Municipalities and District
Assemblies to be established in accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Unless the subject or the context otherwise requires, the legal
provisions relating to interpretation of laws shall, subject to the provisions of this
Constitution, apply to the interpretation of this Constitution in the same manner as
that provisions apply to the interpretation of the Nepal laws.

Part-35 Short Title, Commencement and Repeal

Short Title, Commencement and Repeal

307.Short title and commencement: (1) This Constitution may be cited as the
“Constitution of Nepal”.

(2) This Constitution shall commence on 20 September 2015 (3rd day of
the month of Ashwin of the year 2072 Bikram Sambat).

308. Repeal: The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 (2063) is hereby repealed.

Schedule-1 National Flag of Nepal

(Relating to clause (2) of Article 8)
National Flag of Nepal

The method of making the National Flag of Nepal

(a) Method of making the shape inside the border
(1) On the lower portion of a crimson cloth draw a line AB of the required
length from left to right.

(2) From A draw a line AC perpendicular to AB making AC equal to AB plus
one third AB. From AC mark off D making line AD equal to line AB. Join B
and D.

(3) From BD mark off E making BE equal to AB.

(4) Touching E draw a line FG, starting from the point F on line AC, parallel to
AB to the right hand-side. Mark off FG equal to AB.

(5) Join C and G.

(b) Method of making the moon

(6) From AB mark off AH making AH equal to one-fourth of line AB and
starting from H draw a line HI parallel to line AC touching line CG at point
I.
(7) Bisect CF at J and draw a line JK parallel to AB touching CG at point K.

(8) Let L be the point where lines JK and HI cut one another.

(9) Join J and G.

(10) Let M be the point where line JG and HI cut one another.

(11) With centre M and with a distance shortest from M to BD mark off N on the
lower portion of line HI.

(12) Touching M and starting from O, a point on AC, draw a line from left to
right parallel to AB.

(13) With centre L and radius LN draw a semi-circle on the lower portion and let
P and Q be the points where it touches the line OM respectively.

(14) With centre M and radius MQ draw a semi-circle on the lower portion
touching P and Q.

(15) With centre N and radius NM draw an arc touching PNQ at R and S. Join
RS. Let T be the point where RS and HI cut one another.

(16) With centre T and radius TS draw a semi-circle on the upper portion of PNQ
touching it at two points.

(17) With centre T and radius TM draw an arc on the upper portion of PNQ
touching at two points.

(18) Eight equal and similar triangles of the moon are to be made in the space
lying inside the semi-circle of No. (16) and outside the arc of No. (17) of
this Schedule.

(c) Method of making the sun
(19) Bisect line AF at U, and draw a line UV parallel to AB line touching line BE
at V.

(20) With centre W, the point where HI and UV cut one another and radius MN
draw a circle.

(21) With centre W and radius LN draw a circle.

(22) Twelve equal and similar triangles of the sun are to be made in the space
enclosed by the circles of No. (20) and of No. (21) with the two apexes of
two triangles touching line HI.

(d) Method of making the border

(23) The width of the border will be equal to the width TN. This will be of deep
blue colour and will be provided on all the side of the flag. However, on the
five angles of the flag the external angles will be equal to the internal angles.

(24) The above mentioned border will be provided if the flag is to be used with a
rope. On the other hand, if it is to be hoisted on a pole, the hole on the
border on the side AC can be extended according to requirements.

Explanation: The lines HI, RS, FE, ED, JG, OQ, JK and UV are imaginary.
Similarly, the external and internal circles of the sun and the other arcs except the
crescent moon are also imaginary. These are not shown on the flag.

Note bene:The size of the National Flag of Nepal shall be as determined by the
Government of Nepal.

 

Schedule-2 National Anthem of Nepal

(Relating to clause (1) of Article 9)
National Anthem of Nepal

Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Hami Eutai Mala Nepali
Sarvavhaum Vai Failiyeka Mechi Mahakali
Prakitika Koti Koti Sampada Ko Aanchala
Bir Haruka Ragata Le Swatantra Ra Atala
Gyana Bhumi Shanti Bhumi Terai Pahad Himala
Akhanda Yo Pyaro Hamro Matri Bhumi Nepal
Bahul Jati Bhasa Dharma Sanskriti Chan Bishala
Agragami Rastra Hamro Jaya Jaya Nepal.

Schedule-3 Coat of Arms of Nepal

(Relating to clause (2) of Article 9)
Coat of Arms of Nepal

 

Note bene: This Coat of Arms may be made in larger or smaller size as per
necessity. The colour determined by the Government of Nepal shall
be used on it.

Schedule-4 States, and Districts to be included in the concerned States.

(Relating to clause (3) of Article 56)
States, and Districts to be included in the concerned States.

State No. 1

1. Taplejung
2. Panchthar
3. Ilam
4. Sankhuwasabha
5. Tehrathum
6. Dhankuta
7. Bhojpur
8. Khotang
9. Solukhumbu
10. Okhaldhunga
11. Udayapur
12. Jhapa
13. Morang
14. Sunsari

State No. 2

1. Saptari
2. Siraha
3. Dhanusa
4. Mahottari
5. Sarlahi
6. Rautahat
7. Bara
8. Parsa

State No. 3

1. Dolakha
2. Ramechhap
3. Sindhuli
4. Kavrepalanchok
5. Sindhupalchok
6. Rasuwa
7.Nuwakot
8. Dhading
9. Chitwan
10. Makawanpur
11. Bhaktapur
12. Lalitpur
13. Kathmandu

State No. 4

1. Gorkha
2. Lamjung
3. Tanahun
4. Kaski
5. Manang
6. Mustang
7. Parbat
8. Syangja
9. Myagdi
10. Baglung
11.Nawalparasi (East of
Bardaghat Susta)

 

State No. 5

1. Nawalparasi (West
of Bardaghat Susta
2. Rupandehi
3. Kapilbastu
4. Palpa
5. Arghakhanchi
6. Gulmi
7.Rukun (Eastern Part)
8. Rolpa
9. Pyuthan
10. Daang
11. Banke
12. Bardiya

State No. 6

1.Rukum (Western
Part)
2. Salyan
3. Dolpa
4. Jumla
5. Mugu
6. Humla
7. Kalikot
8. Jajarkot
9. Dailekh
10. Surkhet

State No. 7

1.Bajura
2.Bajhang
3. Doti
4. Achham
5. Darchula
6. Baitadi
7. Dadeldhura
8. Kanchanpur
9. Kailali

 

 

 

Schedule-5 List of Federal Power

(Relating to clause (1) of Article 57, and Article 109)
List of Federal Power

SN Matters
1. Relating to defence and military
(a) Protection of national unity and territorial integrity
(b) Relating to national security
2. War and defence
3. Arms and ammunitions factories and production thereof
4. Central Police, Armed Police Force, national intelligence and
investigation, peace, security
5. Central planning, central bank, finance policies, monetary and banking,
monetary policies, foreign grants, aid and loans
6. Foreign and diplomatic affairs, international relations and United Nations
related matters
7. International treaties or agreements, extradition, mutual legal assistance
and international borders, international boundary rivers
8. Telecommunications, allocation of radio frequency, radio, television and
postal matters
9. Customs, excise-duty, value-added tax, corporate income tax, individual
income tax, remuneration tax, passport fee, visa fee, tourism fee, service
charge and fee, penalty
10. Federal civil service, judicial service and other government services
11. Policies relating to conservation and multiple uses of water resources
12. Inland and inter-State electricity transmission lines
13. Central statistics (national and international standards and quality)
14. Central level large electricity, irrigation and other projects
15. Central universities, central level academies, universities standards and

regulation, central libraries
16. Health policies, health services, health standards, quality and monitoring,
national or specialised service providing hospitals, traditional treatment
services and communicable disease control
17. Federal Parliament, Federal Executive, Local Level related affairs, special
structure
18. International trade, exchange, port, quarantine
19. Civil aviation, international airports
20. National transportation policies, management of railways and national
highways
21. Laws relating to the Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts and
administration of justice
22. Citizenship, passport, visa, immigration
23. Atomic energy, air space and astronomy
24. Intellectual property (including patents, designs, trademarks and
copyrights)
25. Measurement
26. Mines excavation
27. National and international environment management, national parks,
wildlife reserves and wetlands, national forest policies, carbon services
28. Insurance policies, securities, cooperatives regulation
29. Land use policies, human settlement development policies, tourism
policies, environment adaptation
30. Criminal and civil laws making
31. Security printing
32. Social security and poverty alleviation
33. Constitutional Bodies, commissions of national importance
34. Sites of archaeological importance and ancient monuments

35. Any matter not enumerated in the Lists of Federal Powers, State Powers
and Local Level Powers or in the Concurrent List and any matter not
specified in this Constitution and in the Federal laws

Schedule-6 List of State Power

(Relating to clause (2) of Article 57, clause (4) of Article 162,
Article 197, clause (3) of Article 231, clause (7) of Article 232, clause (4)
of Article 274 and clause (4) of Article 296)
List of State Power

Matters

1. State police administration and peace and order
2. Operation of banks and financial institutions in accordance with the
policies of Nepal Rastra Bank, cooperative institutions, foreign grants
and assistance with the consent of the Centre
3. Operation of Radio, F.M., television
4. House and land registration fee, motor vehicle tax, entertainment tax,
advertisement tax, tourism, agro-income tax, service charge, fee,
penalty
5. State civil service and other government services
6. State statistics
7. State level electricity, irrigation and water supply services, navigation
8. State universities, higher education, libraries, museums
9. Health services
10. Matters relating to the State Assembly, State Council of Ministers
11. Intra-State trade
12. State highways
13. State bureau of investigation
14. Physical management and other necessary matters of State
governmental offices
15. State Public Service Commission
16. Management of lands, land records
17. Exploration and management of mines

18. Protection and use of languages, scripts, cultures, fine arts and
religions
19. Use of forests and waters and management of environment within the
State
20. Agriculture and livestock development, factories, industrialization,
trade, business, transportation
21. Management of trusts (Guthi)

Schedule-7 List of Concurrent Powers of Federation and State

(Relating to clause (3) of Articles 57, Article 109, clause (4) of
Article 162, and Article 197)
List of Concurrent Powers of Federation and State

SNMatters
1.Civil and criminal procedure, evidence and oaths (legal recognition, public acts and records, and judicial proceedings)
2.Supply, distribution, price control, quality and monitoring of essential goods and services
3.Preventive  detention  for  reasons  connected  with  the  security  of  the country, prison and detention management, and maintenance of peace  and order
4.Transfer of accused persons, detainees and prisoners from one State to
another State
5.Laws relating to family affairs (marriage, transfer of property, divorce,
persons on the verge of extinction, orphan, adoption, succession and
joint family)
6.Acquisition, requisitioning of property and creation of right in property
7.Contracts, cooperatives, partnership and agency related matters
8.Matters relating to bankruptcy and insolvency
9.Drugs and pesticides
10.Planning, family planning and population management
11.Social security and employment, trade unions, settlement of industrial
disputes, labour rights and disputes related matters
12.Legal   profession,   auditing,   engineering,   medicines,   Ayurvedic
medicines, veterinary, Amchi and other professions
13.State  boundary  river,  waterways,  environment  protection,  biological
diversity
14.Matters related to means of communication
15.Industries and mines and physical infrastructures
16.Casino, lottery
17.Early preparedness for, rescue, relief and rehabilitation from, natural
and man made calamities
18.Tourism, water supply and sanitation
19.Motion pictures, cinema halls and sports
20.Insurance business operation and management
21.Poverty alleviation and industrialization
22.Scientific  research,  science  and  technology  and  human  resources
development
23.Utilization of forests, mountains, forest conservation areas and waters
stretching in inter-State form
24.Land policies and laws relating thereto
25.Employment and unemployment aid

 

 

Schedule-8 List of Local Level Power

(Relating to clause (4) of Article 57, clause (2) of Article 214, clause (2) of Article 221 and clause (1) of Article 226)

List of Local Level Power

SNMatters
1.Town police
2.Cooperative institutions
3.Operation of F.M.
4.Local  taxes  (wealth  tax,  house  rent  tax,  land  and  building registration fee, motor vehicle tax), service charge, fee, tourism fee, advertisement tax, business tax, land tax (land revenue), penalty, entertainment tax, land revenue collection
5.Management of the Local services
6.Collection of local statistics and records
7.Local level development plans and projects
8.Basic and secondary education
9.Basic health and sanitation
10.Local   market   management,environment   protection   and   bio-diversity
diversity
11.Local roads, rural roads, agro-roads, irrigation
12.Management of Village Assembly, Municipal Assembly, District Assembly, local courts, mediation and arbitration
Assembly, local courts, mediation and arbitration
13.Local records management
14.Distribution of house and land ownership certificates
15.Agriculture  and  animal  husbandry,  agro-products  management, animal health, cooperatives
animal health, cooperatives
16.Management of senior citizens, persons with disabilities and the
incapacitated
17.Collection of statistics of the unemployed
18.Management, operation and control of agricultural extension
19.Water supply, small hydropower projects, alternative energy
20.Disaster management
21.Protection of watersheds, wildlife, mines and minerals
22.Protection and development of languages, cultures and fine arts

 

 

 

Schedule-9 List of Concurrent Power of Federation, State and Local level

(Relating to clause (5) of Article 57, Article 109, clause (4) of Article 162, Article 197, clause (2) of Article 214, clause (2) of Article 221, and clause (1) of Article 226)
List of Concurrent Powers of Federation, State and Local Level

S.NMatters
1.Cooperatives
2.Education, health and newspapers
3.Health
4.Agriculture
5.Services such as electricity, water supply, irrigation
6.Service  fee,  charge,  penalty and royalty from  natural  resources,
7.Forests, wildlife, birds, water uses, environment, ecology and bio-diversity
8.Mines and minerals
9.Disaster management
10.Social security and poverty alleviation
11.Personal events, births, deaths, marriages and statistics
12.Archaeology,  ancient monuments and museums
13.Landless squatters management
14.Royalty from natural resources
15.Motor vehicle permits