9. Strategies

9.1       A Mixture of Strategies

Because of the complexity of the forestry sector, a holistic approach is needed to translate the above policy into administrative and management actions. The policy issues are multidimensional and interrelated, and therefore require a mixture of strategies. Although strategies are normally selected to complement each other, in some cases they may compete. In such situations, national leaders should seek guidance from the policy statement in order to orchestrate the development efforts of the forestry sector.


9.1.1    Strategies for Land Use Planning Adhere to the Principles

of Land Use

  • Ensure land use planning is an integral part of ecosystem management for the sustainable development of land and forestry resources.
  • Use development and physiographic regions as the areas for land and forestry sector development and for biodiversity conservation.
  • Adopt the categories of land use formulated in 1986.
  • Update land use maps and forest resource information.


Ensure the Sustainable Development of Land and Forestry Development

  • Develop and implement land and forest resource development programs based on the concept of land use planning.
  • Provide measures for the conservation of land and forest resources.
  • Encourage people’s participation through effective conservation education and through extension activities including communication and demonstration. Use people-centred planning processes to increase the availability of public land and to best serve the interests of the people.
  • Utilise resources only after taking into account environmental repercussions.


9.1.2    Strategies for Production and Utilisation

Increase the Production of Fuelwood, Timber, Fodder and Non-Wood Products

  • Promote community forestry by entrusting forest protection and management to user’s groups and by supporting and empowering them.
  • Monitor forest biomass productivity frequently by inventorying forests. Fuelwood, fodder, timber, medicinal plants and other non-wood products all require attention.
  • Promote private forestry by encouraging plantation on farms and other private land.
  • Promote agroforestry techniques like the intercropping of fruit trees with medicinal and aromatic plants as well as other multiple land-use techniques adopted to various farming systems as well as to commercial plantations.
  • Identify areas which produce surpluses beyond community needs and therefore could be leased to farmers’ groups or forestry based industries.
  • Promote commercial plantations, especially in the Terai.
  • Designate, delineate, and manage government-managed national forests in a scientific way.
  • Intensify the management of the existing accessible forests in accordance with the provisions of the Forest Act of 1993 and the Forest Rules of 1995.
  • Give priority to community forest management and to government-managed forests in the allocation of research and development resources.
  • Base livestock management on the amount of fodder production and highland pasture so as to improve forest management and increase the production of fodder by community efforts.
  • Conduct research on multipurpose trees, bamboo, shrubs, medicinal and aromatic plants, and grasses, in order to identify improved stocks for planting.
  • Systematically allocate more development resources to areas deficient in forest products.


9.1.3    Provide For Effective Harvesting and Distribution

  • Promote the involvement of the private sector in the controlled harvesting and distribution of wood and other forest products.


  • Streamline the pricing policy of forestry products from national forests in order to generate revenue for forest development and management.
  • Eliminate restrictions on the internal trade and transport of timber and fuelwood within all priority areas.
  • Promote an internal market system in order to meet the demands of priority areas.
  • Export forestry-based products once they are processed and finished.


9.1.4    Reduce Consumption

  • Conduct research on, develop, and promote the adoption of alternative energy sources such as natural gas, biogas, bioenergy, and solar, hydroelectric, and wind power in Cupertino with agencies responsible for the production and supply of energy.
  • Use mature trees efficiently. Encourage the maximum utilisation of wood by an improved pricing system based on the “replacement value” of forest and trees.
  • Promote the adoption of efficient, energy-saving cooking stoves.
  • Demonstrate and advise villagers on basic house construction which uses economic designs and reasonable specifications for timber.
  • Establish facilities such as low-cost rope ways and paths that ultimately reduce the consumption of forest products.


9.1.5    Improved Pasture and Livestock Management

  • Immediately design an integrated national forage development program and an appropriate institutional arrangement for its implementation in order to complement the Master Plan for the Forestry Sector and the Agriculture Perspective Plan.
  • Co-ordinate research on and development of farming systems.
  • Improve breeds in order to increase productivity and control livestock populations to reduce demands for feed.
  • Support stall-feeding with financial aid and extension services.


9.1.6    Strategies for the Conservation of Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Genetic Resources

Improve Legal And Institutional Arrangements

  • Develop legislation in accordance with the National Conservation Strategy (NCS), National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) and others plans in order to enforce the sustainable management of land resources; to protect natural resources such as soil, water, flora, fauna, and scenic beauty; to maintain the ecological balance; and to conserve biodiversity.
  • Amend legislation to implement new a policy for the Terai, the Churia hills and the Inner Terai, especially to conserve forests in the Churia.
  • Establish and empower a ministry for implementing environmental programs which safeguard the lives and property of people.
  • Provide the MFSC with the legal authority, manpower and other resources needed to fulfil its mandate to look after the national interests in the sustainable use of natural resources and in the protection of the environment.
  • Extend appropriate soil conservation and watershed and wildlife management activities to all parts of the country through the existing field units of the MFSC.


Educate Public about Nature Conservation and Forestry

  • Introduce a compulsory course in nature conservation to the curricula of all school classes.
  • Educate teachers, journalists, political leaders, government officials, staff of non-governmental organisations, and the general public through publications, broadcasts, seminars, workshops, field trips, etc., organised and promoted by the MFSC.
  • Provide extension activities and vocational training for farmers to encourage proper land use and the consequent reduction of pressure on land resources.


9.1.7    Strategies for Social Aspects of Land and Forestry Resources

  • Adhere to the decentralisation policy by entrusting, the protection, management, and utilisation of forests to users and supporting and empowering them.
  • Gradually hand over all accessible hill forests to local communities to the extent that they are able and willing to manage these forests.


  • Formulate simple management techniques and specialised programs for the Siwaliks region in order to conserve the ecosystem as well as to meet the demands of the local people.
  • Entrust users with the task of protecting and managing forests. Allow users to receive all of the income, which they must spend primarily on forest improvement and development, including the cost of hiring forest watchers. Extra income may be spent as the community determines.
  • Encourage communities to grow commercial forest crops where appropriate growing conditions exist and to establish forest-based processing enterprises outside of the community forest.
  • Emphasise extension activities aimed at gaining the confidence of the woodcutters and others, particularly women, who make forest management decisions daily. Encourage the maximum involvement of women members in users’ committees.
  • Formulate simple management agreements as quickly as possible in order to expedite the handing over of forests to users and to regulate harvesting so that it meets the demand on a sustainable basis in the long run.
  • Periodically improve management plans on the basis of experience and new data from field studies. Emphasise socio-economically viable management systems.
  • Reforest depleted forests to fill production gaps.
  • Retrain the entire staff of the MFSC for their new roles as advisers and extension workers.


9.1.8    Focus on Providing Livelihood to Poor and Landless People in Forestry-Related Activities

  • Employ the poor and landless in nursery, plantation and management work, construction, forest harvesting, and forest-based industries.
  • Train individuals, provide financial support to establish private nurseries, and purchase their products.
  • In allocating leasehold forests, give people below the poverty level priority, but only encourage them to engage in forestry if the benefits will exceed the costs. Avoid the policy of “poor land to poor people”.
  • Employ the poor and landless on government and leasehold forest plantations, including those using agroforestry techniques.
  • Initiate programs and incentives to establish and manage tree farms on leasehold forestland for industrial and multiple-use purposes.
  • Pay a just income to the rural poor who collect raw materials like medicinal and aromatic plants for industries based on such forest products.




9.1.9    Strategies to Promote Private Involvement in Forestry Development

Consolidate the Resource Base

  • Reduce the land tax on private land used for the plantation of forest species.
  • Extend the land-holding ceiling for private land which is used for forest production.
  • Provide financial support to private nurseries and plantations at low-interest rates.
  • Extensively distribute seedlings and other planting materials at reasonable prices.
  • Disseminate information and provide extension activities, training, and education.
  • Conduct research on and develop alternative and fast-growing species suitable for agroforestry.
  • Eliminate restrictions on the internal trade and transport of forest products.
  • Relax import regulations on essential commodities such as matches, plywood, and paper during the period required to establish the raw material base and industrial capacity for Nepal to produce these commodities in an adequate supply.
  • Make parastatal organisations compete with private enterprise on equal terms.
  • Conduct surveys and assessments of resources and markets for timber and non-timber forest products.


9.1.10  Develop Industry

  • Make low-cost financing available to forest-based industries for their renovation, improvement, and expansion, and for the installation pollution-control facilities.
  • Liberalise the import of raw materials for forest-based industries.
  • Support technical and vocational training.
  • Conduct researches on and develop logging and transport technology.
  • Identify, produce and process herbs and other non-timber forest products.
  • Pass regulations discouraging the export of unprocessed products and encouraging the export of high value-added products.
  • Promote the commercialisation of non-timber forest products.


9.1.11 Strategies for Investment in the Forestry Sector Prioritise the Forestry Sector and its Programs

  • Prioritise the forestry sector as one of the crucial areas for government planning and financing for national development.
  • Continue the forestry master planning process, prioritise development programs, and allocate the financial resources of the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation to priority areas.
  • Continue the FSCC as a forum for the discussion of policy analysis, planning, and program implementation on a priority basis among forestry sector donors and officials of HMG/N.
  • Establish the capabilities for an effective project analysis, planning, and evaluation at the MFSC. Prepare and implement priority projects and programs.
  • Support technical and vocational training and conduct research on prioritised forestry programs and operations.
  • Assess and update the status of resources periodically.


9.1.12  Create an Environment Conducive to Investment

  • Solicit grant assistance for programs that are supportive and/or implemented with people’s participation. Mobilise such funds for international training and the purchase of equipment to improve the capability of forestry professionals.
  • Accept loan assistance for only those productive forestry programs which are economically feasible.
  • Reorient the FSCC to better co-ordinate the activities of the forestry programs; to provide a mechanism for sharing information about forest development issues; and to identify and recommend ways to harness potential internal and external resources for forestry sector development programs.
  • Encourage private sector investment including joint ventures in implementing commercial forestry operations in suitable forests of the Terai.
  • Do not intervene in the internal trade, transport or pricing of forest products, but do liberalise the import of raw materials for industrial purposes.
  • Make parastatal organisations compete with private enterprise on equal terms.