4.0 Problems and ChallengesEditor NLC
Major issues and challenges identified from various sector assessments are as follows:
- Expansion of services has not been very systematic and effective in the absence of master plans to guide the development of water supply and sanitation systems in urban areas. Many urban areas still have poor sanitation services and suffer highly degraded urban living environment.
- Coordination in the sector is not very effective as the institutional set up for providing water and sanitation services in urban areas are fragmented. Roles of DWSS, NWSC, WUSC and local governments are not clearly separated and their areas of operation are not clearly defined. Operating models are agency specific and therefore widely vary between townships creating confusion in users of
- WUSCs and municipalities require significant strengthening for effective management and implementation of urban water supply
- Emphasis on cost recovery objectives also increases the risk of poor and marginalized groups not being adequately served. Sufficient safeguards are required to prevent this from happening.
- Insufficient allocation of finance and priority towards schemes maintenance have adversely impacted on the operating efficiency of the systems.
- It has not been possible to attract the domestic private sector to take on the operation and management of schemes due to low tariff levels, that are generally inadequate to support the O & M cost requirements as well as bad health of many urban
- Reliable information on coverage, system performance and service delivery are not available due to lack of benchmarking and monitoring and evaluation of urban water supply and sanitation utilities/projects.
- There is a sizable financial resource gap in the urban sector and additional funds will be required if the sector is to keep pace with projected
- Increasing number of urban settlements and limited availability of supply sources poses a balancing challenge between supply and
- Both abstraction of raw water and discharge of used water is not effectively