5.0 Need for New Policy

Need for the new policy arises because:

  • Demand for urban water supply and sanitation system services is increasing both in terms of basic coverage and quality of service attributes due to growth in economy, changes in rural/urban demographic patterns and relatively poor service levels existing at present in many urban areas, which necessitates accelerated development of service systems and improvement in how such systems are operated and
  • Development, operation and sustenance attributes of urban water supply systems carry a specific uniqueness as compared to rural water supply systems. Whereas a comprehensive National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Policy has been adopted and promulgated by the Government of Nepal in 2004, there exists a policy gap to address the urban water supply and sanitation
  • Many institutions are involved in providing water supply and sanitation services in urban areas. The need for an umbrella policy is felt for achieving coherent and consistent development of the sector in urban areas, avoiding duplication of efforts, avoiding confusion of operational modalities and achieving uniformity in service standards across the towns
  • Development of water supply and sanitation services within the townships must be harmonized with urban development plans and programs


Overall policy support and guidance is required towards achieving equity in service delivery by ensuring that the financially marginalized households within the system areas are mainstreamed as valid customers of service through design and implementation of financial incentives where so required.